Full text of "Report"
NINETEEN - FIFTEEN
Eleventh Annual Report
The Canadian Club
SEASON OF 1914-1915
CANADIAN CLUB, WINNIPEG
President THOS. R. DEACON, C.E.
First Vice-President D. M. DUNCAN
Second Vice-President K. W. CRAIG
Literary Correspondent J. A. STEVENSON
Honorary Chaplain The Et. Kev. S. P. MATHESON,
Archbishop of Rupert's
Land and Primate of all
Honorary Secretary R. H. SMITH
Honorary Treasurer CRAWFORD GORDON
A. L. CROSSIN J. N. SEMMENS MAX STEINKOPF
H. DETCHON W. A. MATHESON
PROF. F. W. BRODRICK H. B. SHAW
C. W. ROWLEY
Mr. A. L. Crossin, President 1915-16
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
1904-5 J. S. EWART, K.C.
1905-6 SIR ALBERT AIKINS, K.C.
1906-7 G. B. CROWE
1907-8 SIR WILLIAM WHYTE
1908-9 :...LT.-COL. J. B. MITCHELL
1909-10 .....REV. C. W. GORDON, D.D.
1910-11 ISAAC PITBLADO, K.C.
1911-12 W. SANFORD EVANS
1912-13 C. N. BELL, F.R.G.S.
1913-14 C. W. ROWLEY
1914-15 T. R. DEACON, C.E.
Honorary Life Members
of the Canadian Club of Winnipeg
FIELD MARSHALL H.R.H. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT AND
His EXCELLENCY EARL GREY, G.C.M.G.
LORD MILNER, G.C.B.
SIR ERNEST SHACKLETON, K.C.V.O.
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR ROBERT BADEN-POWELL, K.C.B., F.R.G.S
MAJOR-GENERAL S. B. STEELE, C.B., M.V.O.
RT. HON. SIR ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
Minutes of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Canadian
Club of Winnipeg, held on 26th November, 1915,
T. K. Beacon, President, in the Chair.
The minutes of last annual meeting were read and
The annual report of the Executive Committee was
submitted as follows:
Winnipeg, 26th November, 1915.
To the Members of the Canadian Club
Your Executive have pleasure in presenting the
Eleventh Annual Report of the Club.
The effects of the European War upon Canada have
been of a varied character. Commercial and Industrial
interests have to some extent suffered from the existing
condition of things. Our people, however, have been
actuated by a splendid optimism, and an unflinching
loyalty to the motherland. The patriotic note has been
very often sounded by our speakers during the year, and
our members have met it with an enthusiastic response.
At the present time over 100 members of the Canadian
Club of Winnipeg, including four members of your pres-
ent Executive Committee, are serving their King and
Country, and our Roll of Honor includes the names of
not a few of Winnipeg's best known and most repre-
sentative citizens. But this by no means expresses our
practical loyalty; as a matter of fact, there are very few
of our members who are not, directly or indirectly,
"doing their bit" for the Empire.
The Club, during the year, has done a considerable
amount of work which has been of some service to the
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
great cause of Education, especially in the realm of
History and Civics.
To keep in memory those who have rendered dis-
tinguished service to Canada and to the Empire, and to
commemorate outstanding events in the history of our
country, the flag was flying on the Canadian Club flag-
staff at the corner of Main Street and Burrows Avenue
on the anniversary of the following:
When Canada Became British Feb. 10 1763
Birthday of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-
Governor of Upper Canada Feb. 25 1752
The Constitutional Act granting increased powers of
Government to Canada passed by the British
House of Commons Mch. 7 1791
R.N.W.M.P., Yukon Patrol Death of Insp. Fitzgerald... Mch. 22 1911
The Scott South Pole Expedition Death of Captain
Scott Mch. 291912
Birth of Sir John Franklin, the great Explorer April 16 1786
Birth of the Duke of Wellington, the great Soldier May 11769
Death of Dr. David Livingstone, the great Explore?
and Missionary : May 1 1873
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Discoverer of Newfoundland.... June 10 1578
Arrival of Lord Selkirk Settlers June 25 1811
Birth of Lord Nelson, the great Naval Hero Sept. 291758
Birth of Sir Isaac Brock, Leader of the British Forcer
in the War of 1812 Oct. 61769
Trafalgar Day Oct. 211805
Driving last Spike of C.PR Nov. 7 1885
Articles dealing with these events were published
in the daily newspapers, and in some of the non-English
papers. These articles were also printed in pamphlet
form and distributed throughout the Winnipeg Public
Schools, and in addition copies were mailed to news-
papers throughout the West, and were published on the
same day as the article appeared in the local papers. It
is hoped in this way to stimulate the consciousness of
national life, keep alive a just pride in the achievements
of the great Empire to which we belong and to inspire
the young people of our community of every origin with
MINUTES OF ANNUAL MEETING 7
a desire to play worthily their part in the development
of our Canadian life and institutions.
Our membership, which is now the largest of any
Canadian Club in Canada, is thus summarized:
Members who have paid their fees for year 1914-15 1698
Members on Active Service or in Training, who have paid fees
for year 1914-15 40
Members on Active Service or in Training, being carried on
Honor Roll ., 60
Members transferred from other Clubs, etc 12
Honorary Life Members 7
Total Membership 1817
At the sixteen luncheons held during the year, there
has been an average attendance of 427, the largest in
the history of the Club, and the addresses delivered were
of an unusually high and instructive standard. The
following statement gives dates, names of speakers, and
subject of address:
Dec. 5th, 1914 Hon. Arthur Meighen (Solicitor General for Can-
ada). "The War."
Dec. 15th, 1914 Mr. J. S. Woodsworth (Secretary Canadian Welfare
League). "The Emigrant Invasion after tfle War
Are We Ready for It?"
Dec. 29th, 1914 Sir Robert Laird Borden (Premier of Canada).
"Canada and the Empire."
Jan. 18th, 1915 Major-General Hon. Sam Hughes (Minister of
Militia). "The Canadian Contingents."
Feb. llth, 1915 Mr. Joseph W. Flavelle (Toronto). "War and
Feb. 25th, 1915 Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (London, Eng.).
Mar. 12th, 1915 Dr. J. G. Rutherford (Superintendent of Agriculture
and Animal Industry, Natural Resources Depart-
ment, Canadian Pacific Railway). "The Inter-
dependence of Farm on City."
April 14th, 1915 Mr. John W. Dafoe (Editor of the Manitoba Free
Press). "The Press as a Factor in the forming
of Public Opinion."
May 13th, 1915 Dr. Abraham L. McCrimmon (Chancellor of Mc-
Master University, Toronto). "Some Canadian
Interpretations of World Movements To-day."
May 19th, 1915 Dr. Charles Sarolea. "Past, Present and Future
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
June 29th, 1915 Newton Wesley Rowell, K.C. (Leader of the Oppo-
sition in the Ontario Assembly). "Britannic and
Germanic Ideals of Empire."
Sept. 3rd, 1915 Colonel J. A. Currie, M.P. (Commandant of the 48th
Highland Battalion of the Canadian Expedition-
ary Force). "The Canadian Troop* in Flanders."
Oct. 8th, 1915 Major Arthur W. Morley (90th Winnipeg Rifles).
"Some Incidents of the 2nd Brigade of the Cana-
dian Expeditionary Force."
Oct. 15th, 1915 Mr. A. M. Nanton (Chairman of the Finance Com-
mittee of the Manitoba Patriotic Fund). "How
the Dependents of our Soldiers are Looked After."
Oct. 26th, 1915 The Marquis of Aberdeen and Temair (formerly
Governor-General of Canada).
Nov. 4th, 1915 Lieutenant J. J. Simons, of Australia. "Australia in
The moral force of the Canadian Clubs has ever
been one of their most noted features, and not a few im-
portant reforms have eventuated as the result of its
exercise. During the past year, several important re-
solutions were passed by the Club, notably the follow-
"Whereas the British Empire is at war with Ger-
many, Austria-Hungary and Turkey;
"And Whereas many positions of responsibility and
trust in Canada are held by those who have come to us
from these countries, and who are still in sympathy with
their fellow-countrymen in Europe;
"And Whereas such sympathy, though not neces-
sarily inconsistent with an attitude of loyalty to Canada,
may in some cases result in injury to the cause for which
Canadians are fighting and will in all cases expose the
sympathizers to suspicion merited or unmerited;
"Therefore, be it resolved that the Canadian Club of
Winnipeg urge the Government of Canada, the Govern-
ment and Municipalities of Manitoba, to transfer or sus-
pend for the period of the war all those officers or em-
ployees who may reasonably be held to be in sympathy
with our enemies, from offices or employment in which
MINUTES OF ANNUAL, MEETING
they have it in their power to do harm to Canada or the
"The Canadian Club of Winnipeg cordially appreci-
ates the action of the Provincial Government in its re-
striction of the hours of sale of intoxicating liquor in
this Province, as contained in the recent Order-in-Coun-
cil, commends this policy as one truly patriotic in its
scope and application, and urges all citizens to co-oper-
ate in its observance and so promote sobriety and
economy among our people in this time of national
"That in the opinion of this Club, soldiers returning
incapacitated from the front should be given preference
in appointment to employment by the Government of
Canada and the Provinces or the Civic Service, to posi-
tions which they may be qualified to fill, irrespective of
their political attachments, as a recognition of their ser-
vices to the Empire in this great crisis."
"Whereas the Canadian Club of Winnipeg re-
cognizes with pride and gratitude, the heroism of Cana-
dian soldiers on the battlefields of Belgium, and ac-
knowledges the valuable work the Government has al-
ready done in raising and equipping men for service at
"And Whereas the Club further recognizes the great
severity of the strain upon the resources of the Empire
and the momentous character of the issues at stake for
"Therefore be it resolved that this Club respect-
fully and earnestly call the attention of the Dominion
Government to the extreme importance of making such
preparation as will enable Canada in time of need to
10 THE CANADIAN CLUB OP WINNIPEG
exert to the full her strength and resources in the pre-
sent struggle, and urge the Government:
"1. To maintain the force that represents Canada
at the front at the strength of at least double the present
number of men provided;
"2. To maintain the present Militia force of Can-
ada and to take immediate steps to proceed to enrol and
organize a force as reserve of 250,000 men, to receive
preliminary instruction in manoeuvre and especially in
"3. To employ to the utmost limit of their capacity
the manufacturing plants of the Dominion for the pro-
duction of munitions of war or provide them otherwise."
"In view of the great problem, even under normal
conditions, of imbuing the many non-English-speaking
nationalities of Western Canada with Canadian ideals,
this Executive of the Winnipeg Canadian Club regrets
that at a time like the present when this difficult prob-
lem is aggravated and accentuated, German newspapers,
such as 'West Canada' and 'Der Nordwesten,' in Winni-
peg; 'Der Courier/ in Regina, and 'Der Alberta Herold,'
Edmonton, should publish in their columns editorials
and other matter pronouncedly pro-German and design-
ed to convey the impression to our German population
that Germany and her Allies are proving victorious.
"And this Executive is strongly of the opinion that
the Dominion Government should take immediate steps
to suspend said publications pending satisfactory and
sufficient guarantees being given that they will refrain
from deliberately giving a pro-German color and ap-
pearance in the presentation of telegraphic or other
war news, or from printing pro-German editorial
MINUTES OP ANNUAL. MEETING \ \
"And this Executive would further suggest that
other Canadian publications printed in the language of
those nations with whom the British Empire is at war
should be closely supervised by an official of the Domin-
ion Government, with a view to the prevention of the
publication of articles similar to those complained of
in the foregoing."
Anyone who has been observing the trend of public
affairs must have seen that, in regard to the present war
and its concomitants, such resolutions as these, coming
from an important body of representative citizens, had
a notable effect for good.
The following money grants have been made by the
Club during the year:
$40.00 towards Tablet in memory of Laurence Irv-
ing and his wife.
$100.00 to Y.M.C.A. to assist in special work in
$200.00 covering free Studentships and Bursaries in
the Winnipeg Art School.
$100.00 to Boy Scout Movement.
$150.00 towards Field Kitchen for 27th Winnipeg
11,000 Song Sheets supplied to soldiers in Camp
The Club also presented prizes to non-English stud-
ents attending the free evening school classes, con-
ducted under the auspices of the Winnipeg Public School
Board, for progress made in acquiring a working know-
ledge of the English language. During the past year,
twenty-eight students were, upon the recommendation
of their teachers, awarded prizes.
12 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
As in former years, individual and class prizes for
proficiency in Canadian History were awarded by the
Canadian Club to scholars and schools throughout the
Province as follows:
Individual Scholarships of $20.00 each:
Leona Wyzykowski, Beausejour, Man.
William Chesney, Teulon, Man.
Dorothy G. Aldis, Deloraine, Man.
Holmfridur Johnson, Arborg, Man.
Class Scholarships of $20.00 value each:
Britannia School, St. James, Man.
Teulon School, Teulon, Man.
Arborg School, Arborg, Man.
Alexander School, Alexander, Man.
Glenella School, Glenella, Man.
St. Charles Convent, St. Charles, Man.
In order to encourage and increase the interest be-
ing taken by the men of Military District No. 10, who
enlisted, and were in training at Camp Hughes, the
Canadian Club presented a handsome shield for com-
petition among the various regiments in the Camp for
proficiency in the handling of the machine gun. The
competition was held at the Camp in October, and was
keenly contested, the 44th Battalion being adjudged the
winners. Opportunity was taken when this battalion
was passing through Winnipeg on its way to the front
to present the trophy.
TROPHY PRESENTED BY THE WINNIPEG CANADIAN CLUB FOR COMPETITION
BY MACHINE GUN SECTIONS OF THE BATTALIONS IN TRAINING
AT CAMP HUGHES. MANITOBA. 1915. WON BY 44TH
BATTALION. LT.-COL. WAYLAND. O.C.
MINUTES OF ANNUAL MEETING \ 3
It is not to be expected that a large club like ours,
comprising, as it does, all stages of manhood, would pass
over twelve months without having to record many
losses by death. During 1914-15, fifteen of our number
were called away into the great beyond.
Sir Charles Tupper, an Honorary Life Member of
our Club, died but a few weeks ago at the advanced age
of 96. Apart from his devotion for, and the great ser-
vices rendered to his country, which caused him to be
reverenced in no ordinary way, Sir Charles had a per-
sonality which won from all true Canadians the highest
Mr. N. Bawlf, a former member of our Executive,
and Mr. John Leslie, a former Vice-President, passed
away after very short illnesses, both universally missed.
Mr. Archibald MacDonald, who also has been called
to his rest, was one of Manitoba's pioneers, and was held
in much esteem by all who knew him.
Mr. J. H. Brock, associated for many years with the
Insurance and Financial interests of the West, was one
of our most respected citizens. Mr. John O'Donohue was
a faithful member of the Dominion Civil Service, and he
was often present at our gatherings, until prevented by
the infirmities of old age. The other members who have
been taken from us are Messrs. H. W. Nanton, W. A.
Knowles, J. B. Pringle, G. E. Todd, F. C. J. Hawkins, W.
R. Watson, and Hon. W. H. Montague all loyal mem-
bers of the Club.
We should be wanting in gratitude and respect, did
we not speak in terms of admiration of Capt. John
Geddes and Lieut. R. Hoskins, both of whom died on
14 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
the field of battle, fighting bravely for King and Country,
and for the cause of righteousness and justice.
"So greet thou well thy dead
Across the homeless sea,
And be thou comforted
Because they died for thee.
Far off they served, but now their deed is done,
For evermore their life and thine are one."
Submitted on behalf of the Executive Committee,
T. R. DEACON,
R. H. SMITH,
The report was unanimously adopted.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT J 5
Crawford Gordon, the Honorary Treasurer, then
submitted the following-statement of the finances of the
For Year ending 15th November, 1915
Balance 21st November, 1914 $1,091.48
Interest on deposit in Savings Bank 25.34
Proceeds Sale of Luncheon Tickets 3,333.40
1,738 Memberships 3,476.00
Association of Canadian Clubs, membership
fee $ 20.00
Automobile and Cab Hire 71.65
Expenses of Speakers 37.60
Erection of Flag Pole at Burrows Avenue and
Main Street . 263.00
Laurence Irving Memorial 40.00
Y.M.C.A. (work in military camps)........ . 100.00
27th Battalion Field Kitchen ^9- 150.00
Luncheon Expenses 3,733.00
Printing and Stationery 1,104.35
Scholarships in Public Schools of the Province
for proficiency in Canadian History 221.40
Prizes to non-English students in Winnipeg
Evening Schools for marked progress in
acquiring a knowledge of the English
Telegrams ...'. 158.95
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
Verbatim Reports of Addresses delivered dur-
ing year 87.50
Cash on Hand-
Savings Bank $500.00
Current Account . . 523.49
CRAWFORD GORDON, Hon. Treas.
We have examined the books and vouchers of the
Canadian Club of Winnipeg for the year ending 15th
November, 1915, and hereby certify the above to be a
true and correct statement of the Receipts and Disburse-
ments for that period.
WM. T. RUTHERFORD ) _
L C HAYES I Honorary Auditors.
The report was adopted.
Mr. W. S. Fallis, chairman of the committee ap-
pointed to nominate the officers of the Club for the year
1915-1916, submitted the following report of the com-
President: A. L. CROSSIN
First Vice-President : C. K. NEWCOMBE
Second Vice-President : W. H. CROSS
Literary Correspondent : S. R. TARR
Honorary Chaplain: REV. ANDREW BAIRD, D.D.
Honorary Secretary: R. H. SMITH
Honorary Treasurer: CRAWFORD GORDON
NOMINATION OP OFFICERS 17
DR. J. R. JONES
THE HON. MR. JUSTICE GALT D. K. FINKELSTEIN
HON. H. A. ROBSON, K.C. WILLIAM ROBERTS C. F. GRAY
M. F. CHRISTIE T. R. DEACON
The report of the Nominating Committee was un-
The meeting then adjourned.
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
Names of Members of Winnipeg Canadian Club
who have gone to the front, or who have enlisted and
are now in training for overseas service.
Abbott, S. W.
Ackland, C. M.
Alldritt, W. A.
Baird, J. R.
Barrowclough, S. L.
Bell, Dr. F. C.
Bell, J. K.
Bell, Dr. P. G.
Bell, Dr. T. H.
Benwell, P. W.
Benson, S. Percy
Bingham, R. F.
Black, N. J.
Blanchard, Dr. R. J.
Bonnycastle, S. L.
Bowring, C. T.
Boyle, R. B.
Brick, W. J.
Brodie, Malcolm J.
Burch, R. E.
Burwash, L. T.
Cadham, Dr. F. T.
Cameron, A. P.
Campbell, Dr. Spurgeon
Cherry, H. M.
Choate, A. E.
Chown, Dr. H. H.
Clark, J. St. Clair
Collum, W. J.
Cook, Thorn. S.
Cope, E. F.
Craggs, G. S.
Crowe, J. A.
Crozier, J. A.
HONOR ROLL, 49
Culver, A. F.
D'Arcy, N. J.
Davison, W. E.
Deacon, Edgar A.
Dennistoun, R. M.
Dinnen, N. J.
Drummond-Hay, L. V.
Duncan, D. M.
Freeland, F. E.
Gagnon, J. T. C.
Gibbs, P. A.
Gordon, Rev. C .W.
Green, Dr. C. W.
Guild, W. F.
Gunn, C. S.
Gunn, Dr. J. A.
Haffner, E. B.
Hallum, W. B.
Hamber, H. B.
Hansford, J. E.
Harris, G. M.
Harvie, A. K.
Hastings, V. J.
Hawkins, S. S.
Heron. G. R.
Hesketh, J. A.
Hill, A. R.
Hindle. D. A.
Hossie, W. A.
Houblon, R. E. A.
Jamieson, G. W.
Johnstone, E. B.
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
* Jones, R. E. N.
Jordan, H. K.
Kenny, W. F.
Laing, G. S.
Lake, Wm. A.
Laver, E. C.
Lawless, W. T.
Lindsay, C. V.
Lineham, Dr. D. M.
Lipsett, L. J.
Macaw, W. M.
Macdonell, A. C.
Macdonell, Dr. John
Macfarlane, W. G.
MacKenzie, W. A.
MacLean, N. B. (Major)
Maclean, R. M.
Mainer, R. G.
Mainer, R. H.
McAdam, C. S.
McAlpine, A. D. H.
McMillan, Rev. J. W.
McTavish, R. B.
Mermagen, E. W.
Meiklejohn, F .E.
Miller, P. W.
Miller, G. G.
Milbourne, A. J. B.
Milne, C. N. G.
Mitchell, Dr. Ross
Moorehead, Dr. E. S.
Morden, G. W.
Mordy, A. G.
Morley, A. W.
Mullins, H. A.
Murray, Canon J. O.
Musgrove, Dr. W. T.
HONOR ROLL 21
Myers, R. M.
Ney, Frank A.
Key, F. J.
Newberry, W. F.
Newcombe, C. K.
Newton, J. O.
Nichol, F. T.
Northwood, Geo. W.
Niven, Dr. E. Fielden
O'Grady, G. F. deC.
Osier, H. F.
Paterson, R. W.
Paton, G. M.
Phillips, A. E.
Porter, H. W.
Poussette, G. F. C.
Pratt, Edward S.
Proctor, J. P.
Prowse, Dr. S. W.
Reade, Hubert T.
Richards, S. R.
Kichardson, B. V.
Riley, C. S.
*Robertson, J. E.
Roe, J. M.
Ross, A. M. S.
*Ross, Geo. H.
Ross, R. A.
Rutherford, Gerald S.
Ruttan, H. N.
Sadleir, Dr. J. F.
Scott, C. M.
Sellwood, R. A.
Semmons, J. N.
Shaw, H. B.
Shore, R. J.
Skaptason, J. B.
Sprague, D. B.
Sprague, D. E.
Sprague, H. C. H.
Spry, W. B.
Steele, S. B.
22 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
Sterling, S. L.
Stevenson, J. A.
Stinson, C. R.
Stinson, C. R.
Taylor, T. W.
Thomson, R. M.
Todd, Dr. J. O.
Tyrell, C. S.
Wadge, Dr. H. W.
Ward, J. Stanley
Ward, J. W.
Wardaugh, M. P.
Webb, A. J.
Weld, Geo. H.
West, John E.
Williams, T. O.
Wilson, F. K.
Wilson, Prof. N. R.
Wise, H. A.
Young, A. H.
Young, Dr. F. A.
Young, R. S.
Young, R. S.
^Killed in Action.
It has been exceedingly difficult to secure a com-
plete list of our members who have enlisted for over-
seas service, and inadvertently some names which
should have been included may have been overlooked.
The Secretary would be glad to be advised of any such.
ADDRESSES OF THE TEAR 23
CANADA'S RESPONSIBILITY IN THE PRESENT
5th December, 1914.
Hon. Arthur Meighen, Solicitor-General for Canada.
Prefacing his address by stating that he purposed
speaking of the meaning of the present struggle, of its
life and death meaning for us, our country and our
civilization, Mr. Meighen said:
"This war is the wars of the past multiplied to-
gether. Why then are we a party to it? If we succeed,
what should we do? This is a conflict between two
schools of thought; the German school on the one hand,
of Frederick the Great, of Neitsche, of Bismarck, of
Treitschke, and of Jagow; and on the other hand the
British school of Bacon, of Burke, of Pitt, of Canning,
of Asquith yes, and of Lincoln and Wilson too! But
why are they in conflict? Why cannot they live side by
side? Because if the first school is to live and thrive,
there is no room on earth for another. The world is
making its choice. 'The German state,' says Treitschke,
must be the supreme and only sovereign of its destiny
and must freely and for itself determine its place in the
world/ Sovereignty as he defines it, means release from
international obligations wherever they conflict with
the interest of that state whose place in the world
means all that the sword can carve. They tell us that
to profess otherwise is, in Mr. Asquith's translation, 'so
much threadbare and nauseating cant/
"Such is the theory of the state as defined by Treit-
schke. And they go still further than that. 'Treaties,'
he asserts, 'are not restraining. They are self-imposed.
They are restrictions placed by the state upon its own
actions. That is all a treaty is and if the state places
24 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
a restriction upon itself, the state can remove it.' This
would mean, if applied to our own actions, that all the
principles around which our race has rallied for two
thousand years, all the ordinary virtues as we under-
stand them, have no place in the politics of the world.
"That, gentlemen, is the doctrine pronounced and
preached by the most popular philosopher of Germany
during the 19th century.
"When Frederick the Great said, one hundred and
fifty years ago, 'A great nation that has a chance to
humble a rival and does not do so, is a fool,' he was
only the forerunner of Neitsche and Treitschke, the
voice crying in the wilderness. When Bernhardi wrote
in cold ink: 'You have heard it said that a good cause
will justify even war, but I say that a good war will
sanctify any cause,' he was merely their echo. Jagow
was nothing more than their faithful disciple when he
gasped at Britain's fidelity to Belgium and called the
treaty of 1839 a 'scrap of paper'. The tragedy of it all
is that multitudes applauded the one and worshipped
the memory of the other.
"The treaty with Belgium's 'scrap of paper;' that
is our foundation of this conflict. It is important, vital-
ly important, that we understand it. If we fail to under-
stand that, we cannot get the whole meaning of the
struggle. We cannot see the bigness of the issue. It is
a conflict of ideas as inevitable as the laws of life and
death. We need to understand that, and never to forget
it; otherwise we cannot know all that we are fighting
for. Science run mad, 'Kultur,' as they call it, has de-
veloped a cancer in world politics. Success in this war
means its extraction. Defeat (forgive me for mention-
ing it) would mean the desecration of those principles
around which our race has rallied in the storms of life.
It would mean the surrender of what to us is the ark of
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 25
civilization. It would mean the progressive delivery-
over of humanity to a new-fangled paganism.
"An excuse, even a good excuse, will not satisfy the
British people, even in the narrow sense of the word
justification. We must be convinced, when we are com-
pelled to go to war, that we are compelled to go to war
to save our country. To save it from what? From hu-
miliation and annihilation ; to preserve it from dishonor
and decay (for dishonor is the open door to disintegra-
tion). No great country can ever survive the loss of the
respect of its people. Veneration for the national honor
is the binding force of an empire. Was honor a stake
for us in this war? It takes some presumption to ask
that question in the hearing of intelligent men. Our
country had to fight or prostitute its good faith. What
is more, it had to fight or imperil its existence. Bel-
gium stood upon her bond her cry passed to Great
Britain, 'We have kept the faith,' said King Albert, 'Will
you keep yours?' Britain chose all chose.
"It was only when confronted with a choice between
keeping our solemn obligations in the discharge of a
binding trust in the face of a shameless subservience
to naked force, that we threw away the scabbard. 'We
do not repent our decision,' so said Asquith, and so says
every man who wears the name of Briton.
"You have read the documents, and you have meas-
ured the combatants. When you see strength and indo-
lence on one side and weakness and humiliation on the
other, it is not usually very difficult to locate right and
wrong. Germany said : 'Leave the giant and the dwarf
alone to fight this out. The giant is my partner.' 'Not
while I live,' said Russia. 'Servia must do right. She
must atone her wrong, if wrong there be; but she must
not be crushed.' Britain took no side. She promised no
support. She exhausted every resource to secure con-
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
ciliation. What then is charged against her? That she
should have stood in shining armor beside Germany and
threatened Russia with war if she dared to protect little
Servia. 'And because you did not/ says Germany, 'we
hold you guilty of all this bloodshed even for the butch-
ery of Belgium/ Imagine the apostles of 'education and
culture' solemnly pressing such humbug on the world.
While the war lasts, let us keep these facts alive and
lighted in our minds. Surely, if we do and we are men,
we need no other incentive. If Canadians read the facts
of the white books of the two countries, they will do
their duty. But what a time this is for us to live
through! It seems like the focus of the eternities. For
the rest of our lives, the best measure of our worth will
be how we behaved in the war.
"We are in the vortex, and I think we have heard for
the last time that the entanglements of Britain, her 'en-
tanglement with Belgium/ is of no interest to us. We
are as much in the vortex as if we were in the City of
London. The foe that faces us now is greater than the
foe that faced Britain in the days of Napoleon. It is the
greatest foe that ever confronted a nation, or a combina-
tion of nations. We liave to win or go down. That is
the cardinal truth, and that is all that any man need
touch upon. There can be no compromise. A com-
promise would be a sin against ourselves and our chil-
dren, against civilization itself. As to the result, we
fear not. The soldier on the field, the statesman at the
helm, have demonstrated that all the qualities that made
us what we are, exist to-day in full measure as in the
days gone by.
"The Canadian Government has been and is now
loaded with unwonted responsibilities. If we know our
duty, we will spare nothing, but bend every energy to
the needs of this conflict. The other functions of gov-
ernment we must still perform but this is the first!
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 27
The lives of our sons we hold sacred. Of the wealth of
our people we are only trustees. But in this great fight
we fail utterly if we spare either to achieve success. Be-
fore any failure on our part will expose the common
cause to peril, we are prepared to bankrupt this nation.
"We may pass down through the valley of the shad-
ow. But we battle for the undoubted right and if we
see to it that might in this day, two thousand years A.D.,
that might springs to the side of right, for that is our
charge; that the world's muscle is behind justice and
good faith in a war with selfish aggression then we
will have finished well our great work, and can count our
inheritance in terms more blissful than the past has
28 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
THE IMMIGRANT INVASION AFTER THE WAR-
ARE WE READY FOR IT?
15th December, 1914.
J. S. Woodsworth,
Secretary Canadian Welfare League
Mr. Woodsworth reminded his hearers that the war
had clearly revealed to us what we had only begun to
suspect: That we had in our midst large numbers of
undigested aliens who might at any time cause a serious
disturbance within our body politic.
"The danger now to be guarded against is that a sud-
den panic may lead us to take extreme positions and
thus intensify and perpetuate racial bitterness and ani-
mosities. Canadian unification is still far from com-
plete, and the introduction of foreign elements is mak-
ing the progress extremely complicated and difficult.
"While admittedly the question is an exceedingly
complicated one and it is impossible to determine accur-
ately what the resultant effect of the war will be, it ap-
pears probable that the war will accelerate rather than
retard this world movement of the people. In support
of this conclusion, two general considerations may be
urged. First, war tends to break down national social
barriers, to loosen old associations, and to enlarge our
little world; second, this war will change the whole
economic map of Europe and of the world. Trade cur-
rents will take entirely new directions. The precise
effects no one can prophesy, but on the whole, Canada,
a new country, largely as yet undeveloped and with un-
limited natural resources stands to gain.
"Are we ready for more immigrants? Even without
a greatly augmented increase, our problem is a serious
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 29
one. As yet no constructive policy has been adopted for
dealing with it in any adequate way. Our immigration
department has made excellent arrangements for the
care of immigrants during their journey, has provided
for their comfort at points of transfer, has even helped
them financially till they obtained a foothold. But more
far-reaching measures are absolutely necessary. Our
industrial system, our educational system, our political
system, must be decidedly modified to meet the new
needs. We have a commission on conservation of
natural resources. Why not a commission on conserva-
tion of human resources?"
A chart exhibited by the speaker, showed that Can-
ada's population in 1901 was 5,371,315; of this 57 per
cent., or 3,630,195, was British. The immigration from
July 1, 1900, to March 31, 1914, was 2,906,022. The
various nationalities were represented in the following
proportions: English, 27.63 per cent.; Welsh, .44;
Scotch, 7.98; Irish, 2.36; Dominions, .72; total British,
38.41 per cent; United States, 34.41. The non-English-
speaking peoples were divided as follows: Norwegian,
.65 percent; Swedish, .91; Danish, .19; Icelandic, .14;
Finnish, .71; French, .81 ; Belgian, .5; Swiss, .07; Dutch,
.30; German, 1.25; Austria-Hungary, 6.63; Polish, 1.17;
Roumanian, .28; Russian, 3.17; Italian, 3.87; Greek,
.24; Hebrew, 2.49; Spanish, etc., .07; Bulgarian, etc.,
.52; Syrian, etc., .42; negro, etc., 1.71; Chinese, 1.06;
Japanese, .53; Hindu, .19: Total non-English-speaking,
27.18. The distribution by provinces was as follows:
Maritime provinces, 4 per cent; Quebec, 16; Ontario,
26: Manitoba, 15; Saskatchewan, 13; Alberta, 14; Bri-
tish Columbia, 12.
In view of the situation presented by this chart, Mr.
Woodsworth intimated that the question for us in Can-
ada to decide is, not only "What will we do with our im-
migrants?" but "What will our immigrants do with us?"
The task is not necessarily how to paint this whole map
red, but at least to introduce true harmony among the
manv nationalities that are living side by side beneath
30 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
Chart two showed the total immigration from 1913
to 1914 as 384,478, against 402,432 in 1912-13, or a de-
crease of 4.46 per cent. The British immigration was
142,622 as against 150,542, or a decrease of 5.26 per cent.
Immigration from the United States was 107,530, as
against previous year 139,009, or a decrease of 22.54 per
cent. From other countries the immigration was
134,726, as against previous year 112,881, or an increase
of 19.35 per cent. Thus, while there was a decrease in
the immigration both from Great Britain and the United
States, there was an increase in our non-English immi-
"While we superficially class all of these people
as foreigners, we must remember that in reality each
is a foreigner to all the others. The Canadians are the
amalgam which must bind together these diverse
peoples. My question is: Mix these peoples together,
and what is the outcome? Prom the racial standpoint
it is evident that we will not longer be British, probably
no longer Anglo-Saxon. Prom the standpoint of
eugenics it is not at all clear that the highest results are
to be obtained through the indiscriminate mixing of all
sorts and conditions. But if they do not intermingle
and intermarry, the situation may be even more serious,
as we will then set up more or less of a caste system.
From the religious standpoint, what will be the out-
come? For it must be remembered that most of our
foreign immigrants do not belong to the churches which
are at the present time dominant in Canada. From the
political standpoint it is evident that there will be very
great changes and very serious dangers. Whilst it is
true that these peoples are not united, and that the Eng-
lish majority may retain its power by pitting one against
the other, at the same time it is also true that such a
condition is far from satisfactory and would inevitably
result in placing any party at the mercy of any one lead-
ing nationality, thus practically giving that nationality
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 31
the balance of power. Unfortunately, already many of
these foreigners have been politically corrupted.
"Now, from the social standpoint. We must re-
member that each nationality brings with it its own
social customs and ideals. Which will prevail? Again,
from the industrial standpoint. There is the serious
question as to whether with such a rapid influx Cana-
dian standards of living can be maintained.
"Let me say a good word for the foreigner. Few of
us realize the riches which he brings with him. In fact,
from Europe these streams of immigration bear with
them valuable deposits which may enrich our national
life if we have but the good sense to conserve them. A
high idealism; love of art, music and literature; patient
industry; deep religious devotion; all these the immi-
grant brings to our shores. We cannot afford to lose any
of them. Most Canadians despise the foreigner. The
foreigner himself soon catches the prevalent attitude
and becomes ashamed even of the excellencies in his
own civilization. Unfortunately too, he often picks up
the worst in our Canadian life. Too often the children
despise their parents and disregard their views, and thus
constitute the class from which our juvenile criminals
are recruited. No man should think lightly of his mother
"A century ago the population of the United States
was five millions. At the begining of this present cen-
tury Canada's population was five millions. But whereas
in the first ten years of last century the United States
received only 70,000 immigrants, Canada has received
nearly two millions in the first ten years of this century.
That is, our responsibility is 28 times as great as that of
the United States. Further, up to the year 1870, less
than 1 per cent, of the total immigration to the United
States came from south-eastern Europe. Almost 20 per
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
cent, of our immigration comes from south-eastern
Europe. According to our northern standards the peoples
from south-eastern Europe are lower in the scale,
but in any case the very fact that they are so different
from ourselves constitutes the problem. If the United
States had difficulty, how much greater our task?
"I would like to call your attention to the serious
problems arising because of the varieties of language,
the lack of proper housing, educational needs, and the
question of unemployment. The difficulty is, that we
have too long been quite indifferent to these needs. We
have tried to segregate ourselves as far as possible from
them, have exposed them to all sorts of vicious influ-
ences; then wonder why they are not assimilating.
"What social opportunities are afforded the immi-
grant? The closing of the bars is a negative way of
dealing with the problem. Our other public and semi-
public buildings should be thrown more widely open; I
think particularly our schools. They are open in this
city, I am glad to say, for the teaching of the English
language three nights in the week. Why not throw
them open for social gatherings for the other three
nights? To-day we practically drive the immigrant into
questionable places of resort.
"Several important questions arise in the matter of
education. Foreign children leave the schools too early
in large numbers. Then there is the question associated
with the term 'bi-lingualism.' Personally I have a great
deal of sympathy for the foreigner in his desire to re-
tain the language which his father and mother speak,
and which is the language of his religious expression.
I can see no reason why under proper safeguards pro-
vision should not be made for the teaching of other than
the English language. We do this in our universities,
where we recognize the cultural value of the various
European languages. Why should it not be done at the
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
age when children can most readily learn a second lan-
guage. But this should be done in such a way that it
would not interfere with unifying influences of the
school. English should be the language of our schools
and should be taught thoroughly.
"Further, modifications in our public school system
become necessary. We have made no general provision
for the teaching of adult immigrants. In this respect
Winnipeg has done excellent work, but in the majority
of our Canadian communities absolutely no effort is
being made to instruct our adult foreigners in the Eng-
lish language or in the principles of Canadian citizen-
"The race map of western Canada looks very much
like a crazy patchwork quilt. How can these peoples
be sufficiently united to form one strong nation? Europe
has been transferred to Canada. Here we have all the
divisions of race and language and social customs, and
all the inherited animosities of centuries. What Europe
has failed to do in a thousand years Canada must at-
tempt. On this point at least both the east and the west
will take suggestions from Winnipeg.
"Gentlemen, we are the sons of pioneers. Our fore-
fathers, daring the wilds of eastern Canada, carved out
for themselves homes in the forest and laid the founda-
tion of a mighty nation. We honor their memory, not
so much by proudly reciting their heroic deeds as by
carrying forward their work. Out national and imperial
ideal must be big enough and noble enough to include
the best that all the nations may bring us."
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
CANADA AND THE EMPIRE
29th December, 1914.
Right Honorable Sir Robert Laird Borden,
Premier of Canada.
After expressing his appreciation of the Club's
electing him to a life membership previous to his rising
to speak, the Premier referred feelingly to the unanimity
with which Canada was facing its great task. Continu-
ing he said:
"I shall not pause to speak to you this afternoon as
to the justice of the cause for which we are fighting, be-
cause the judgment not only of the Empire but the judg-
ment of the world has already been passed, and has de-
clared that our cause is just; and if anything would
serve, just as an illustration of the fact that this is a war
of aggression in the final analysis by Germany and her
allies, that fact is to be found in the declaration of Italy
that she was not pledged to join in this war, because it
was not a war of defence and therefore must be a war
of aggression. I have been among the people of the re-
public to the south of us, and am glad to bring back to
you from them a message of sympathy, a message ab-
solutely signifying to you their belief that the cause in
which the British Empire is working to-day is a just
cause and one in which men can enlist their whole sym-
"Between the Prussian autocracy and its ideal of
world-wide dominance, British supremacy upon the sea
has stood as a barrier. In all quarters of the world where
the pathways of commerce cross, the British supremacy
on the ocean made her mistress of the situation; and
Germany soon realized that if her ideal of dominance
was to be attained, her future must be on the sea.
/ 5*>^~^ U
Sir Robert Laird Borden
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 35
"We are only beginning to realize the enormous
military strength of the German Empire. We are only
commencing to understand how immensely superior she
stood in military preparation, organization and re-
sources to all the other nations at the outbreak of the
war. Wielding that tremendous power, which made any
apprehension of attack by our Empire a mere idle
dream, Germany has for at least twenty years with
constantly increasing emphasis pressed her challenge of
the seas upon the British Empire. Thus the contest in
naval armaments which British statesmen have vainly
endeavored to prevent, has proceeded from year to year.
No shot was fired, no ships were sunk, no battle fought;
but it was in truth war between the two nations.
"On three recognized occasions during the past ten
years Germany has brought Europe to the verge of
actual war. On two of these occasions she imposed her
will upon Europe; but on the third Great Britain stood
firmly resolute, and Germany receded. The events of
1911 have never been forgotten; and there is reason to
believe that but for the commanding influence and un-
tiring efforts of Sir Edward Grey, the war which broke
out in 1914 would have been forced upon Europe during
that previous year. I have spoken of three occasions;
but, as was once said to me by a statesman of great
experience in the foreign office: 'The international
kettle is always on the verge of boiling, although the
people know nothing of it until the steam begins to
escape.' When the secrets of diplomatic records come
to be fully disclosed, I do not doubt that in each of the
past ten years German aggressiveness will be found to
have made war imminent or at least probable.
"If our preparation for the struggle was insignifi-
cant compared with that of Germany, let us not forget
that her resources are insignificant compared with those
of this empire. There are many things which count,
36 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
besides armed forces in the field. In the organization
of modern war, all the nation's resources must be reck-
oned with. Consider those of Canada, which even dur-
ing the coming year can supply food products to an al-
most unlimited extent. Our great transportation sys-
tems are an invaluable asset, even for military purposes.
Already our factories are turning out not only clothing
and equipment of all kinds, but munitions of war on a
great scale and of a character which we did not dream
of producing four months ago. Our inexhaustible re-
sources in the forests, the fisheries, the coal and min-
erals of Canada, are tremendous assets in this war. All
this must tell in the long run, as Germany will yet know.
In a word, we have the resources, while Germany has
"The ability of the allied armies to hold in check the
powerful forces of Germany pending the preparation
which we lack, has been amply demonstrated; and the
armies of the Empire, as well as its enormous resources,
are already being organized on such a scale as leaves
no room for doubt as to the issue of this struggle. The
preparation must be thoroughly and adequately made.
It would be not only useless but criminal to send our
citizen soldiers into the field of battle without the or-
ganization, training and discipline which are essential
under conditions of modern warfare.
"This struggle involves issues which transcend even
the interest and the future of our own empire and which
embrace the whole theory and practice of government
for all the future generations of the world. If the mili-
tarist and autocratic ideal of the Prussian oligarchy can
assert itself in world-wide dominance, the progress and
development of democracy will either have been stayed
forever or the work of centuries will have been undone
and mankind must struggle anew for ideals of freedom
and rights of self-government which have been estab-
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 37
lished as the birthright of the British people. Thus the
powers of democracy are themselves on trial to-day; and
the issue of this conflict concerns not only the exist-
ence of the British Empire but all the world-wide as-
pirations that have found expression in the freedom
which its people enjoy.
"The unity of purpose inspiring the British domin-
ions, and their participation in this war upon so vast a
scale have amazed the Prussian war-lords. Also it has
shattered their confident belief that the military re-
sources of those dominions were entirely negligible.
Current developments must mark a. great epoch in the
history of inter-imperial relations. There are those
within sound of my voice who will see the overseas do-
minion surpass in wealth and population the British
Islands there are children playing in your streets who
may see Canada alone attain that eminence. Thus, it is
impossible to believe that the existing status so far
as it concerns the control of foreign policy and extra-
imperial relations, can remain as it is to-day. All are
conscious of the complexity of the problem thus pres-
ented ; but no one need despair of a satisfactory solution,
and no one can doubt the profound influence which the
tremendous events of the pa>3t few months and of those
in the immediate future must exercise upon one of the
most interesting and far-reaching questions ever pres-
ented for the consideration of statesmen.
"Germany is disposed to dismiss with indifference
and even contempt all proposals for settling interna-
tional differences by peaceful methods. Indeed, the Ger-
man government seems to consider any such proposals
as expressly directed against Germany's interests which,
as they conceive, demand that her military power must
inevitably be employed fov her national development
and advancement through the subjugation and humilia-
tion of other nations, and the appropriation of such of
38 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
their possessions as she may find most useful for her
purposes. This conception carries with it the ideal that
in all the centuries to come, brute force shall be the
highest right, that the most powerful nation shall be a
law to itself, that its treaties and obligations may be put
aside when necessity arises, and that the national will
shall alone be the judge of that necessity. If all the
teachings of Christianity and all the ideals of modern
civilization point only to this result, mankind has not
great reason to regard its ideals and standards as on a
higher plane than those of the brute creation. Indeed
one should then say that man was made a little lower
than the brutes:
'No more? A monster then, a dream,
A discord. Dragons of the prime
That tear each other in their slime,
Were mellow music matched with him.'
''Such ideals are not helpful to humanity; and the
sooner they are dispelled and dismissed, the better for
the nation which entertains them and the better for the
world. If this war was necessary for that purpose, let
us not regret that it came when it did. In this struggle
against Prussian oligarchy and against its ideals, Can-
ada in common with all the Empire is prepared to fight
and intends to fight to the death. Reverses may come,
sacrifices will be inevitable, there may be days of doubt
and even of gloom; but the fortitude, the determination
and the resourcefulness which did not fail the people of
the Empire in the storm and peril of more than a century
ago, and which have maintained the northern half of
this continent as part of that empire, are still our com-
mon inheritance, and will not fail us now."
Major-General Hon. Sam Hughes
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
THE CANADIAN CONTINGENTS
18th January, 1915.
Major-General the Hon. Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of
To the Canadian Clubs of the Dominion, General
Hughes attributed a great deal of the credit for the up-
building of a sound patriotic sentiment or rather the
organized and tangible expression and manifestation of
such a sentiment throughout the length and breath of
Canada. He felt that much of the success that had
crowned recent efforts to raise troops in order to keep
the old flag flying and maintain intact the principles of
liberty for which the great British Empire stands, had
been due to the conditions created in recent years by the
"The German menace has been known for many
years. The design of the Germans aimed at the posses-
sion of Denmark, Belgium, Holland and French Flanders
as far as Calais, and the annexation by Austria of the
Balkan States; so that the Austro-German dominions
should form a mighty empire reaching from the shores
of the North and Baltic Seas to the Aegean and the
Euxine. All-powerful on land as Germany was, she
would thus become all-powerful on the sea; and when
this was carried out, her plan was to divide up Britain's
"These were Germany's plans, and her ambition
was to establish and impress the autocracy of Germany
upon the free peoples of the world. Those of us who
have come up under British institutions and have par-
taken of the liberties which we under Britain's flag en-
joy, have felt that it was our duty to take part in this
great struggle; and when the call came, the armies of
Canada did not hesitate.
40 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
"War broke out early in early August; and on the
night of the 7th of August the Prime Minister of Canada
received an acceptance from the British Government of
our offer of 20,000 men. Let me, gentlemen, say a word
or two as to how that force was organized. I was notified
from all parts of the country that we could not raise ten
thousand men. I had offers from any number of windy
gentlemen to go around the country and preach to the
men their duty in the premises. I said 'No! One word
is going forth to the boys. This war is for human liberty,
to preserve the liberties won by our forefathers in Great
Britain, and to smash the autocracry of Germany.' That
was the only word issued, gentlemen; then we set to
work. We had to buy our land at Valcartier. We had to
make clothes for the men, the khaki uniforms they were
to wear; we had even to make the cloth. We had to get
the boots and the caps and the equipment; and all this
after the outbreak of the war. We had to have the rifles
in readiness for practice on our ranges three and a half
miles long six times as long as any other range in the
world where our boys were to fire nearly seven million
rounds of ammunition, and finally march to the front
the best-shooting 17 regiments that ever stood inside
"We took the crops up, removed the fences, and laid
in twelve miles of water mains. At the end of every com-
pany line was a water tap and a shower-bath for the
boys. We laid out that camp to our satisfaction
whether we laid it out to the satisfaction of the general
public, or not. Everything that human ingenuity could
devise was done. I picked out the best men in each class
that I could find. Sir William Price laid the water mains ;
Mr. Lowe, one of those driving contractors who know
how to expedite a job, I put him to work on the rifle
range. Mr. Bain was put to remove the fences. The men I
set to work on these jobs were men who knew how to
ADDRESSES OF THE TEAR 41
drive and push; and everything went before them. We
brought hundreds of trainloads of soldiers from all parts
of the Dominion of Canada and, Sir, we had in two
weeks at Valcartier, not 20,000 men, but 33,000!
4 'At the end of six weeks, gentlemen, from the date
of the arrival of the first men at Valcartier we had these
33,000 boys ready to march to thirty-one large steamers
docked at the City of Quebec, and sail by Gaspe out
across the broad Atlantic the largest body of men that
ever crossed the ocean at any period in the history of the
world seventeen regiments of infantry! Well, they
crossed the ocean, and arrived at the historic City of
Plymouth. Plymouth people, and the men of Devon-
shire, were wont to boast when I was there that this
was the third great incident in their history. The first
was when the British fleet sailed out from that port to
meet the Spansh Armada; the second was the landing
of William, Prince of Orange; and the third great event
in the upbuilding and maintenance of human liberty was
the coming of the contingent from Canada to assist in
smashing the autocracy of Germany.
"Gentlemen, I do not say it with any intention of
flattery; but no part of the Dominion of Canada has
turned out more men according to the population, or
better men, than the City of Winnipeg. In General
Steele, I recognize that Canada has one of the most
magnificent officers in military service. It has been
said that politics has played a part in the selection of
commanders, and in the other phases of Canada's pre-
paration for her part in this war. But I think General
Steele is like the other Sam. We shut our eyes to
politics. We do not fight as Tories and Liberals. Our
boys are going to the front as Canadians, to show how
they can fight at the Empire's need. What I will insist
on, in choosing commanders, is the safety of the human
souls entrusted to these leaders; and no man is going
42 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
to have that great trust reposed in him, be his politics
what they may, unless I have every confidence that that
man is worthy to lead those men.
"In regard to enlistment, I might say that the spirit
evinced by the boys is magnificent. The first contin-
gent over-ran by seven to eight thousand the number
required; the second is already more than filled up; and
the third is already more than filled wherever we have
had an opportunity to enrol the men. I know the story
of the Canadian boys in the past. I was in South Africa ;
I have no fear now. They are going to the front but,
sir, they are not all coming back. Germany is ready for
this war. She has millions of rifles, and munitions of
war to do her for three years of ceaseless fighting. She
has a capacity for manufacturing more war material per
day than all the rest of the world put together. Do not
imagine that Germany is beaten, or that she will easily
yield, or that, in driving her back from trench to trench,
many a boy is not going down. If it takes ten contin-
gents, one after the other, and ten times as many, the
autocracy of Germany must be smashed. Britain has
fought terrific struggles before. I would like to recall
the old battle of Albuera, when after the British had
faced three or four times their own number, the
historian says: 'When the evening sun gilded the
distant Sierras, fifteen hundred stern and un-
daunted British soldiers stood victors on those
bloody heights; all that remained of fifteen thous-
and in the morning.' So future records of this great
fight will show that Canada did her duty. Whether it
costs forty or fifty or sixty per cent, of her men, the flag
of liberty must flourish and the banner of autocracy
Mr. Joseph W. Flavelle
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 43
THE WAR AND FINANCE
llth February, 1915
Mr. J. W. Flavelle,
President National Trust Co., Toronto.
As Mr. Flavelle was in London when war was de-
clared, and also at the time when the various measures
referred to in his address were adopted by the House of
Commons, his remarks were of added interest to the
large audience which gathered to hear him on a subject
of such great and practical importance. After pointing
out that the modern development of trade and finance
has been possible only through world wide credit (based
on confidence) the speaker showed in detail how it was
the impairment of confidence incident to the delivery of
the ultimatum of Austria-Hungary to Servia in July,
1914, which produced the phenomena that so profoundly
affected every financial centre the world over, before a
shot had been fired, a life lost, or even war declared
between any of the nations except Austria and Servia.
So great was the disturbance and so fearful was the
world of finance of disaster associated with the shrink-
age in the value of securities that before a week had
passed every stock exchange in the world was closed.
The delicate and highly efficient machinery of credit
was completely dislocated. Foreign remittances ceased.
Foreign exchange (the instrument used in the settle-
ment of international business) became non-negotiable,
and every country was confronted with the necessity of
meeting its obligations out of its own resources.
"London, as the world's banker, and the world's
clearing house, was the centre of the disturbance. The
extent of her influence, and the commanding character
of her position was the measure of her anxiety. London
bankers realized that for them the storm centre was in
the position of the great accepting houses and accepting
banks, which by their endorsement of bills of exchange
had made themselves responsible in the event of those
44 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
upon whom they were drawn failing to honor their
obligation, and inasmuch as foreign remittances had
ceased, they knew that the accepting houses would be
confronted with the necessity of meeting these bills for
which they had made no preparation. You will realize
the importance of this international currency expressed
in bills of exchange, for which London accepting houses
had made themselves responsible, when I indicate that
the sum outstanding aggregated about 300,000,000
pounds sterling (about $1,500,000,000) maturing at the
rate of about 4,000,000 pounds sterling ($20,000,000) a
day. The larger percentage of this exchange was on
domestic account, the balance on behalf of foreign
clients. You will realize the gravity of this balance
when I indicate it is estimated that at any time during
recent years the amount of outstanding acceptances in
London on German account was for no less a sum than
70,000,000 pounds sterling ($350,000,000), which if the
Germans failed to cover, it would become necessary for
the London accepting houses to meet the obligation.
"On Saturday afternoon, the first of August, the
bankers arranged with the Chancellor of the Exchequer
to declare a partial moratorium covering bills of ex-
change, explaining that it was necessary that they
should secure a breathing spell, that they might deter-
mine how to meet these obligations. All Saturday after-
noon and evening, and all through Sunday the bankers
met in conference only to find their confusion increased
as they realized the magnitude of their problem. They
were in agreement upon only one thing, namely that
they must have time. Hence they sent a deputation to the
Chancellor of the Exchequer asking that the bank holi-
day which fell due on the following day would be ex-
tended over Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday of that
"While the bankers were considering what recom-
mendations they would make to the Treasury Depart-
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 45
ment, the Chancellor turned his attention to an entirely
different subject. By a singular coincidence a select com-
mittee of the House of Commons, which the year before
had been directed to inquire into what action the nation
would take to secure the continued service of its mer-
chant marine in the event of war, reported to the House
of Commons the week these difficulties reached their
climax. With unerring instinct the Chancellor took
that portion of the report dealing with insurance against
the King's Enemies, incorporated it into a bill which
passed both Houses of Parliament, and received the
King's assent within twenty-four hours of the declara-
tion of war, and within forty-eight hours you could go
to a suite of rooms in the Hotel Holborn in the city, and
you could come out of them with a slip of paper which
had on it the statement that, in return for the premium
paid, His Majesty's government held the holder free from
loss which might be sustained by reason of the King's
Enemies to the ship or cargo indicated upon the insur-
ance receipt. Although we have been at war with the
second greatest naval power in the world, there has
practically not been a day pass since the declaration of
war, that the ships of Great Britain have not sailed
in every sea, carrying products to and from the Mother-
land, and carrying the commerce incident to the great in-
dustrial life of that country.
"The bankers waited upon the Treasury Depart-
ment, and asked for two things: 'Grant us a mora-
torium from August 4th to September 4th upon all obli-
gations incurred, contracts in force, and debts due prior
to August 4th. Suspend the Bank Act, and authorize
the governors of the Bank of England at their discretion
to issue currency without its equivalent in gold.' In
support of these two requests they stated: 'There is
this great body of bills of exchange maturing due. We
must secure time in which to prepare to meet this un-
45 THE ' CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
expected obligation. It is impossible to make payment
as they mature. If such payment is required, it will
mean the failure of many of the accepting houses with
all the calamity incident to it. As regards the deposits
which we hold, we want the right of contract on the part
of the depositors to be set aside, we want the option to
rest with the banks to determine how much of the de-
posits they will pay, rather than the right to rest with the
depositors to determine how much they will withdraw.'
The reply which came from the Treasury Department,
after they had counselled on the matter, was: 'We will
grant the moratorium under certain limitations. We
will not suspend the Bank Act, and we will not authorize
the Bank of England to issue notes without their equiva-
lent in gold, but the government of Great Britain will
issue its own obligations in denominations of One Pound
and Ten Shillings and make them legal tenders.' Very
quickly over the community there passed that intangible
thing we call 'confidence;' you cannot tell whence it
comes or whither it goes, and on Friday morning when
the banks re-opened for business, in place of great com-
panies waiting outside the doors of the banks, eager as
they had been on the previous Friday to withdraw their
deposits, conditions were normal, with one exception
everywhere over the Kingdom men who had gold
brought it to the nearest bank and deposited it that the
country might have the benefit of increased gold re-
"The joint stock banks came to the Chancellor and
said : 'Mr. Chancellor, you have listened to the powers
that be, and you have granted a general moratorium.
Look at our position. Ordinarily the most liquid of our
resources are the loans which we hold against stock
exchange securities. These are now frozen, and are
unavailable, because the stock exchange is closed.
Through the general moratorium you tell every man who
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 47
owes us, 'You do not need to pay a penny until the 4th of
September.' How are we to carry on the business of this
country under these conditions?' The Treasury Depart-
ment came back with this reply: 'You hold a billion
sterling of deposits from the people of Great Britain, and
it is through these deposits you have your liquid re-
sources for carrying on the business of the country. To
meet the situation you have indicated, the Treasury De-
partment, on your application, will deposit with each
of you a sum of the new government currency equivalent
to one-fifth of your deposits. We will charge you for
the amount you use during the time it is current with
you 5 per cent, per annum.' At one stroke the Treasury
Department placed at the disposal of the joint stock
banks for the domestic trade of the country, a credit of
200,000,000 pounds sterling ($1,000,000,000) and it
settled immediately the question of the resources of the
banks for the domestic requirements of the nation. It
will interest you to know that the banks did not find it
necessary to take advantage of this credit. The fact,
however, that it was there and available for use lent the
necessary confidence for the free transaction of business.
"But there was still unsettled the much larger ques-
tion : 'How are we to re-establish the foreign exchange
market? How are we to provide, if merchandise comes
to this country, or merchandise goes out of this country,
a medium whereby settlements can be made?' for you
must remember that bills of exchange had become as
vital to the discharge of international obligations as the
bank notes which you carry in your pocket are valuable
for the discharge of your obligations day by day.
"The Chancellor enquired of the joint stock banks:
'Why are you not buying bills of exchange?' and the
reply was obvious. 'There is no discount market. More-
over, look at the body of pre-moratorium bills which we
now have on hand. We want no more bills until some
48 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
disposition is made of the stale paper now held by us.'
To meet this situation the Treasury Department advised
the joint stock banks 'Take your pre-moratorium bills
to the Bank of England. We have arranged that they
will discount any bill that they would have discounted
prior to the war, moreover they will discount them with-
out recourse, that is to say if the maker or acceptor of
the bill does not pay, we will relieve you, the joint stock
banks. We have instructed the Bank of England to re-
lieve you from further responsibility in connection with
these bills once you discount them. The government of
Great Britain will assume all the loss the Bank of Eng-
land may have in relation to these transactions.'
"The joint stock banks came back to the Chancellor
and said: 'True you have relieved us from responsi-
bility for these pre-moratorium bills, but they still have
to be paid. They are still accumulating against the 4th
day of September. The accepting houses still have to
meet their responsibility in relation to them. You ask
us to buy new bills bearing the endorsement of the same
accepting houses, and these new bills mature after the
pre-moratorium bills. How are we to know whether
these accepting houses will be in a position to meet their
obligation when these bills mature due. You are asking
us to do what no prudent banker should do, and we will
not buy the bills.'
"The Chancellor did not stop to reason with the
bankers, or to say whether they were right or wrong. He
was possessed by an absorbing passion that no matter
what the obstacle he meant that business should go on
and if he could not succeed one way he would another.
Through counsel with his advisors he submitted this re-
markable solution for the dead-lock through the Bank of
England: 'Go to the accepting houses, tell them to
collect every penny they can from their clients on ac-
count of these pre-moratorium bills, and having col-
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 49
lected it, deposit the amount with you. Tell them that,
having done this, as these bills mature due you will pay
them, and whatever balance there is between the amount
they have deposited and the amount which you have
paid, it will be a debt due to the government of Great
Britain, for which we will not ask an accounting from
the accepting houses until a year after the close of the
war. Go to the joint stock banks, and tell them that
through this proposal we have placed the accepting
houses in the same credit as they enjoyed before the
war, and that, therefore, their endorsement upon bills
is as responsible as it was before the war. Now go and
re-establish the foreign exchange market.*
"This was the final of a series of acts performed by
the Chancellor and the remarkable group of men identi-
fied with the Treasury Department, assisted by the chief
bankers in the Kingdom, whereby order was brought out
of confusion, credit was re-established, and foreign exr
change, so absolutely essential to the discharge of inter-
national obligations, became current and negotiable.
The world will probably never realize the debt it owes
to the Treasury Department of Great Britain for re-
establishing conditions under which commerce would be
carried on, and confidence restored.
"As there was some confusion immediately follow-
ing the declaration of war as to the application of what
was done in England to our position in Canada, it may
serve a useful purpose to indicate the difference between
a borrowing and a lending country, as illustrated by
Canada and Great Britain, and the difference in the
conditions and the remedies which will be applied under
these diverse conditions.
"If the British Isles, meeting a disturbance of
world-wide character, for the time being experience
unlooked-for complications because of their leadership
in the world of finance, determine that it is inadvisable,
50 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
as far as obligations between themselves are concerned,
to delay payment for thirty days, or for ninety days,
what difference does it make? They owe no one any-
thing. They have no credit to sustain. They are a
loaning country., not a borrowing country.
"What is the position in Canada and I say it not
to our shame, for we are a country in the making. Prac-
.tically every dollar of our national and provincial debts
is owed abroad, and the first claim upon the revenue
of the country is the payment of interest and sinking
fund on behalf of these borrowings all our railway
enterprises, stocks and bonds alike, are practically own-
ed outside the country, and the net earnings are distri-
buted to foreign holders of the securities our mortgage
business is made possible by the sale of sterling deben-
tures and by the use of trust moneys sent to us from
abroad. These borrowings mature at the rate of about
$20,000,000 a year, and it will be the wisdom of our
course as interpreted abroad by those who furnish these
moneys that must determine whether it will be
possible to renew them or whether payment will be de-
manded. The major part of our municipal securities are
in the hands of holders outside the country no incon-
siderable amount of the capital used in our industrial
enterprises, represented by bonds and preferred stocks,
has been supplied from outside.
"What, then, is the supreme duty of a borrowing
country like Canada? What obligation rests upon legis-
latures, parliaments and leaders in finance? Surely
their first duty is to preserve the credit of the country,
for it is our life blood. If, in holding such responsible
relations, they are influenced in their action to give
class legislation, in answer to private interests or pri-
vate pressure, whatever may be its character, they are
doing a grave injury to the credit of the country.
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
"Probably there is not sufficient recognition of the
obligation of this country to the Department of Finance
at Ottawa, for the wisdom and courage with which they
met the situation last August. It is probably not known
that in those early days, in representative cities from
the Atlantic to the Pacific, men commenced to withdraw
their deposits from the banks in gold, which they placed
in safety deposit vaults. I have no doubt that some of
the safety deposit vaults in this city have still in their
vaults some of the gold which was put by at that time.
"The Finance Minister, realizing the gravity of the
situation, called the bankers to Ottawa for counsel. Some
desired that a general moratorium should be declare^,
some were fearful and said 'Do nothing.' The Minister
had the good sense and judgment to hold his mind true
to the chief responsibility which rested upon him to
preserve the credit of the country, and the course which
he selected and which he has followed consistently, to
a remarkable extent steadied the whole country, and our
credit at home and abroad has been sustained. The de-
posits in the banks, upon which you and I as business
men depend for the carrying on of our enterprises, have
remained practically undisturbed. The banks were
authorized to discharge their obligations by their own
notes, thereby immediately stopping the drain of gold.
The Minister took authority to advance legal tenders
(government notes) to the banks if necessary, against
approved securities which they would deposit with the
Treasury Department in Ottawa. His action was less
spectacular than that of the Chancellor of the Exchequer
in Great Britain, because the field of his operations was
comparatively narrow, but in its own field it was equally
effective and equally courageous.
"Before closing, I desire to say a word about banks
I presume I would evoke your applause if I were to
speak critically and severely of the banks. I have found
52 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
that it does not make very much difference where I hap-
pen to be, when I come to the service which the banks
render there is a readiness to believe whatever the
speaker may say, if it takes the form of a censure.
"What is the position of the banker? He is the
custodian of the major portion of the liquid resources of
the country, with an obligation to keep them available
for the requirements of the largest number of people
in the country. In doing so he is bound by the principle
to keep these resources liquid, in the character of loans
made. There is a common fallacy that, if a man comes
to his banker and presents unquestioned security, he
should have the loan which he desires. It must, how-
ever, be remembered that not only is the loan to be made
upon unquestioned security, but the borrower should be
able to satisfy the banker that it will be repaid within
a reasonable time. There is not enough money in the
hands of the bankers for every borrower in this country,
but there is available sufficient to meet the borrowers
served by the bankers, if discretion has been exercised
by the bankers, so that maturing loans are promptly
repaid and made available for the next borrower. If
the banker is true to his duty, he will refuse to loan
unless he can be reasonably assured that the loans will
be sufficiently liquid to permit prompt repayment, so
that someone else can have the use of the money for
equally urgent requirements.
"It is inevitable that, at such a time, there will be
much real suffering in your city. The loss of money
which you, as business men, or capitalists, or specula-
tors, have made is of little consequence in contrast to
the working man, who has lost not only his dividends
but, temporarily at least, his capital, for all the capital
he possesses is the work which he can do with his two
hands, and being denied the opportunity of work, there
is real suffering for him and for his family.
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 53
"Long ago there came to the world, One whose
mission it was to teach us the supreme duty of service
to one another. He, Himself, set the example, to the
point of laying down His life, and one who sought to
interpret what He had done, writing to his friends, said
this: 'He was rich, and yet for our sakes He became
poor, that we, through His poverty might be made rich.'
And, gentlemen, speaking in the capital city of the West,
of which you and we are so justly proud, I venture to
suggest in this time of discipline and anxiety, that your
first consideration should be, not the burdens which you
have to bear, but the burden of the other man, which is
heavier than he is able to bear."
54 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
THE URGENT NEEDS OF BELGIUM
25th February, 1915
Sir Johnson Forbes-Robertson
"Gentlemen of the Canadian Club, I purpose to-day,
I am ashamed to say, to be a beggar. I want to interest
you in a particular charity, which I think when I have
explained, you will consider as meriting all encourage-
ment possible. I do not think I need to say how much
we owe to that great little country, Belgium. We have
got to take its burdens on our shoulders, and we British
gladly and proudly take it. We have got to re-establish
this people who have laid down their lives, whose blood
has smothered the roads and rivers because of a great
"Let me describe to you this particular charity in
the interest of which I have bespoken your assistance.
A woman has bought a barge in Calais, in which she is
going down the canals. She is at present on that barge
distributing food to the starving peasantry. Nothing
can describe, she says, the horrors that she has witness-
ed. Actual starvation! Not only did the people have
no food, but they had no water. The rivers were pollu-
ted. As for coal or flour, of course there was nothing.
Well, this charity consists in the distribution of food
and clothing. She this woman I have mentioned
has a place at Folkestone, where the money and clothing
are handed to two people, and forwarded to her from
there. All the stuff is put straight on the barge. Her
base in Flanders varies from week to week, according to
circumstances. You can take it from me that every
penny that is sent to this woman will be used for food
and clothing. Now, this woman, who has a luxurious
home outside London, in Hertfordshire; who likes lux-
Sir Johnson Forbes-Robertson
ADDRESSES OP THE YEAR 55
ury, good food, soft beds she has turned the key in the
front door of that house, and has willingly given herself
up to conditions of the most trying nature. She is a
connection of mine, this woman, a connection by mar-
riage. Her name is Maxine Elliott (applause). Gentle-
men, I shall take care that Maxine Elliott knows how
her name has been received in this distant country. My
wife will glady acknowledge any contribution, however
small, if sent to 22 Bedford Square, West Central, Lon-
"It is not easy for me, who am of the Old Country,
to speak in level tones when I think of Canada's present
rallying to the Empire's cause when I pass through
your vast continent and see on every hand the warlike
preparations and the magnificent material that you are
sending over when I think of the sacrifices made by
mothers, daughters, wives when I think of the way in
which the manhood of your country has responded to the
call. As I say, I cannot approach the subject without
deep emotion; and when you suffer from deep emotion,
brought about by a great exhibition of loyalty on the
part of a whole people, gentlemen, then your tongue
thickens and your words refuse to come from your
mouth. This is something that the Old Country thor-
oughly appreciates, thoroughly realizes; and, horrible
as this war is, when it is over it is going to bring us
closer together. Gentlemen, I recognize this, and I
know that it must be. I know that the Mother Country
must receive voice and counsel from her children, and
particularly from the beautiful eldest daughter, Canada.
I know that the time will not be long when the Old
Country must see the necessity of taking Canada into
her serious deliberations upon imperial things.
"It is not by measures or laws, or indifference, or
force, or bullying, that a people can be kept together.
It is only by thorough understanding, and by love and
56 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
sweet reasonableness. These are the elements, gentle-
men, that are going to bind us all together. We are
bound now by this terrible war. We learn from each
other, gentlemen. Canada is learning from England,
and England from Canada. We are, I say, brought to-
gether by this terrible war closely knit, firmly grouped
together, under our sacred flag!"
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 57
INTERDEPENDENCE OF THE FARM AND CITY
12th March, 1915
Dr. J. G. Rutherford,
Superintendent of Agriculture and Animal Industry,
Natural Resources Department, Canadian
''We have in the Canadian West," said Dr. Ruther-
ford in opening his address, "been in the habit of con-
sidering the city of primary importance and agriculture
as merely a factor in human progress. Farming is not
one of the minor things. If it were not for the farm
and the farmer, we would not have any cities, banks,
factories, financial institutions, or railways, nothing.
The young people do not seem to realize that and quite
a lot of the old ones do not.
"You are just as dependent on the farmer in this
city, this big, solid, substantial city, as the merchant
who has his little general store in the small railway
hamlet. All the prosperity that has come to the mer-
chants and professional men and others of Winnipeg
has depended and will depend upon the prosperity of
the man on the western farm.
"Now why is it that we as a nation have failed so
signally in grasping this great truth? I do not know
any other country in the world and I know quite a
few that has made such a mess of things in this regard
as Canada has done. It is true that we grow grain;
but as far as the development of agriculture in this coun-
try is concerned, we are doing but little. Now, looking
back all through history, you can find no country in
which any single crop has ever secured permanent pros-
perity for that country. In every case, the single crop
5g THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
spells decadence and the ruin of agriculture. It is quite
as true in regard to one kind of grain as it is in regard to
another quite as true in regard to wheat as to any
other kind of grain.
"We have been using up the natural resources of
this country, and sooner or later we will come to the
end, just like drawing a bank account without making
any deposits, and finally having cheques returned mark-
ed 'n.s.f.' That is what has happened to the farmer in
every country in the world that stuck to the single crop ;
and that is what will happen to us unless we develop
along the proper lines.
"We have been importing to this country enormous
quantities of food beef, mutton, and until very recent-
ly, pork. This year we have 2,050,000 sheep. In 1907
we had 2,750,000 a drop of three-quarters of a million
in the last seven years, and we live in the great agri-
cultural country of Canada.
"Now take cattle: In 1907, as closely as we can
reach it, there were about 7,100,000 head of cattle in
Canada; in 1914, 6,036,000. In other words, we dropped
practically a million head of cattle in that period. In
the United States the supply of beef cattle in the decade
between 1900 and 1910 dropped 21 per cent, while dur-
ing the same period the meat-eating population of the
United States increased 31 per cent. Carefully figured
out by an expert, that shows a decrease in the per capita
supply of beef in the United States of 23 per cent.
"Now, what is the immediate reason? I do not be-
lieve our producers get the prices they ought to be get-
ting. The price to consumers of meats of all kinds in
Great Britain at the present time is about the same as
it is here in Canada. But there is a great difference in
the price the farmer gets for his beef. In the Old Coun-
try at the present time of course there has been a
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 59
certain rise on account of the war the farmer is getting
about ninepence a pound live weight for his finished
beef. But ever since I can remember, he has been get-
ting twelve, thirteen and fourteen cents (sevenpence)
a pound for his beef. Now, what do our people get?
Last year, in 1914, Toronto paid $7.67 per hundred
pounds; Montreal $6.62 per hundred pounds; Calgary
$6.94; Winnipeg $6.07. That is, for live cattle. Now
the retail price of sirloin steak in Montreal was 22.7
cents per pound; Regina 28; Calgary 22.8; Winnipeg
26.8. That is the rate per pound you pay for sirloin
steak; and compare that with the price I have just
quoted you, that the farmer gets for his cattle. Now,
for chuck ordinary meat the prices were: Montreal,
16 cents; Regina, 18.4; Calgary, 15; Winnipeg, 18.4
and the farmer here got $6.07 per hundred pounds for
his beef. Now, while it is true that labor is higher, it is
true that feed is very much cheaper here than in the Old
Country. And while the qualtiy of Old Country beef
may be a little better, still the prices quoted are for
the best quality on the butcher's block.
"What does the upbuilding of the cattle industry
mean to you self-satisfied, prosperous, somewhat indif-
ferent business men in this great city? Do you know
that half the financial activities in Chicago over 50 per
cent, of the money business of Chicago is connected
with the Union Stock Yards there? Do you know that
in this city of Winnipeg, on the Red River, you have got
another market which ought to occupy the same position
as the big market I mentioned does to Chicago, and in
the comparatively near future, too? Do you know that
you have here, with these great transcontinental rail-
roads running through Winnipeg as they do, the great
clearing-house for the live stock trade of all this area
between the Red River and the Rockies? It is coming
60 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
to you; it cannot help it; because this country has got
to be a live stock country.
"Now, how are you going to bring this about? You
must understand that the farmer, out on the land by
himself, is the most individualistic individual you ever
saw. I made my living for many years among the farm-
ers, going from one to another; and I tell you, they want
assistance. Not cheap advice! They want co-opera-
tion. You have got to get together. Also let us teach
our young men and women that farming is interesting.
Our smart newspaper lads turn up their noses at the
farmers, calling them rubes and hayseeds when they
meet them on the streets. Let them realize that the
farmer is the man whose foot is on the pedal that keeps
the machine of commerce running. Let us help him
"A long time ago, gentlemen, the King of Brobdig-
nag said to Gulliver: 'The man who can make two ears
of corn or two blades of grass grow on a spot of ground
where only one grew before, will deserve better of man-
kind and do more service to his country than the whole
race of politicians put together."
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
THE PRESS AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION
OF PUBLIC OPINION
14th April, 1915
Mr. J. W. Dafoe,
Editor-in-Chief, "Manitoba Free Press."
Public opinion was defined by the speaker, in open-
ing his address, as the sum of the opinion of the public,
brought about by interchange of views, dissemination of
knowledge, and many other factors, including the
churches, the schools, the universities and the press.
In our country, public opinion is the real governor.
And once public opinion manifests itself unmistakably,
it registers its decision. The successful public man is
not so much the leader of public opinion as its inter-
"Now, the court of public opinion is in session all
the time. From time to time it hands out its decisions,
and those decisions are usually final. Questions about
which there is deep controversy, even to the point of
the shedding of blood, become settled and are accepted
by the whole community as a class, when these decisions
are issued. Those of us who are familiar with British
constitutional history will remember many cases where
questions have been settled this way. For instance, we
got rid, over two hundred years ago, by force of public
opinion, of the doctrine of the divine right of kings.
We have in the same manner established the quesiton
of the propriety of responsible government, of the
supremacy of the civil over military power, and such
other questions as the amelioration of the old penal
laws, and the abolition of slavery, the division of church
and state, and the right of the state to control educa-
tion. These are all closed questions, and anyone who
watches the court of public opinion closely, knows when
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
it is getting ready to hand out further decisions, as,
for instance, in the case of the liquor business and the
place women are to play in the future national life of
"The world has of late months been puzzling over
the German phenomenon, and thoughtful observers
have come to this conclusion that the agencies for
public information in Germany were not free. The
churches were not free, the universities were not free,
the press was not free; and, what was most tragic of
all, they did not want to be free. They accepted a cer-
tain formula, and built their system upon that. That
formula was the conception of a state remote from the
people, apart from the people, imposing its will upon
the people; and free, as Treitschke and Bernhardi im-
pressed upon their readers, from all the moral restraints
which have been imposed by the association of mankind
internationally with one another. The worship of this
mystical state in Germany has created a conception in
which it is practically a tribal God, whose religion is
war, whose high-priest is the Kaiser, and whose priest-
hood is the soldiery. The German system of education
helped to foster this idea; and thus the whole highly-
organized industrial community was simply part of a
Juggernaut designed to roll over the liberties of the
world. Now, it is not probable that in a British com-
munity anything like that could have happened; be-
cause our agencies of public information are free, and
it is our unrelaxing business and aim to see that they
remain free. They will remain free, while we hold
firmly to the conception of a democratic state, a state
which has no powers except those derived from the
people, no functions except to serve the people; and
which is subject, even as every individual man is sub-
ject, to the moral law of the people. But if public opin-
ion is slack, ill-formed or indifferent, you have inevi-
ADUKESSES OF THE YEAR
tably with our system of government, it is bound to
happen under these conditions you have inevitably a
government of special interests, corrupted into a form
"Now, what are the functions of the press in the
matter of public information? The newspaper acts
upon public opinion in many ways. It acts upon it
directly by assertion; and it acts upon it indirectly, be-
cause it is the medium through which news and views
are presented. And it is in the latter capacity that the
newspaper exercises its greatest influence more so,
perhaps, because it acts insensibly. For the newspaper
is not, nowadays, an oracle. The attitude of the average
man on editorials is this: If he agrees with the writer
of the editorial, it is good; if he does not agree, he
wonders why the paper admits such nonsense in its
columns. However, the general public are not particu-
larly censorious about the editorial page. They recog-
nize, no doubt, that this is our own little pasture, where
we may browse comparatively unmolested. It is as to
the conduct of the news columns that the public has
established a right of censure, which it exercises
through all available devices of communication the
telephone, the telegraph, the mails, and personal calls.
"The newspaper is not a business, but a direct pro-
duct of human intercourse. Every newspaper has a cer-
tain atmosphere, certain conditions which dictate its
policy. The newspaper which I conduct is to-day large-
ly and in many respects guided by the spirit of the man
who founded and edited it for a great many years. That
is true of a great many newspapers. The actual pro-
duction of the newspaper is, if you will, a business; but
these are elements in the production of a newspaper
which raise it to the eminence of an art.
"To suppress news which its readers are entitled
to have, or to color such news so as to give a wrong
54 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
impression, is, from its own point of view, very bad busi-
ness for a newspaper; because no newspaper can de-
ceive the public and live, unless there are interests be-
hind it which want it to live for the purpose of deceiving
"Now, you have got to have diversified newspapers
simply because, as I have pointed out, newspapers are
made by the man behind them. Some newspapers stand
for a certain policy, a certain line of thought; others
are paid organs of certain sects or sections of the com-
munity. These conditions are bound to affect the pre-
sentation, the collection, the treatment of news. The
best illustration is afforded by the great English news-
papers. The newspapers of London represent different
shades or schools of political thought; the "Chronicle,"
for instance, stands for the Imperialistic school; the
"News" is Radical throughout; in between the two you
have the "Westminster Gazette," in which Mr. Spender
writes those beautiful articles, in most excellent prose,
pointing out that anything the present government does
is right. It is desirable that a newspaper should stand
upon its own bottom, serve faithfully its section of the
community, and not permit, in order to increase its cir-
culation unduly, any paltering with facts. I can only
say, in conclusion, that after an experience of thirty
years in Canadian journalism, I think without throw-
ing any bouquets that upon the whole Canadian people
have good reason to be satisfied with the service of the
press of Canada."
Chancellor A. L. McCrimmon, LL.D
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 55
SOME PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE REVELA-
TIONS OF THE WAR
13th May, 1915
A. L. McCrimmon, LL.D.,
Chancellor McMaster University, Toronto.
"Righteousness and truth make the only foundation
which can perpetuate a nation's life. Sooner or later
any sentiment of injustice will filter down from the lead-
ers to the people and undermine the stability of the
The above was one of the telling sentences with
which Dr. McCrimmon opened his address. He stated
that from certain revealed facts which have come to us,
we now know the Germans much better than we did a
few months ago. All the major factors of a nation's life
are represented in the trend of her policies and we need
to watch them all and valuate them in order to obtain a
proper result. The immorality of the Prussian policy
has been revealed, an immorality which had a back-
ground from Frederick the Great. In a sentence, it is
"Might over right." This has been preserved fairly well
down through the German chancellories. The German
government asks not what is right, but rather, what is
The speaker then reviewed the outbreak of the war
and its conduct in order to illustrate his point. He
maintained that an autocratic government, such as the
Prussian, is incompetent to interpret rightfully the in-
stitution of democracy. The German people, notwith-
standing their elaborate spy system, do not possess those
bonds of the spirit which are the most potent in every
department of life.
"Mechanism enthrals spontaneity," held the speak-
er. He said that the life of Germany had been for the
advancement of a machine in itself rather than that a
machine should be employed for the advancement of
56 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
life. Speaking on this theme, Dr. McCrimmon asserted
that we had been a little too obsequious in bowing down
to German methods of education. He maintained that
the machine should not be allowed to run the life,
whether it be in economics or in politics.
The speaker expanded on the revelation of the dis-
tinctive elements in the genius of the two empires
the British and the German. He cited the widely diver-
gent attitudes assumed by the respective statesmen.
"The different attitudes assumed by the statesmen
of the two empires before their parliaments, are indi-
cative of the fundamental difference in the genius of
the two people." He then spoke of the way in which
Premier Asquith referred to the treaty obligation and
the way in which Chancellor von Bethman Holweg re-
ferred to ethics of necessity and the violation of inter-
national law. He referred to the literary productions
of the war and the great difference manifested between
them, instancing Germany's "Hymn of Hate" as the
paramount example of the spirit in that country against
England. One lesson from this was that we, as a people,
should keep our heads and not allow a spirit of hatred
to render injustice to the German contingent in our own
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF BELGIUM
19th May, 1915
Dr. Charles Sarolea
Dr. Charles Sarolea, Editor-in-chief, "Everyman,"
With evident depth of feeling, Dr. Sarolea reminded
his hearers that, apart from the economic and political
tie which is bound to be closer in the near future, Canada
and Belgium will be drawn together by bonds entirely in-
dissoluble. For the last few months, for the forthcom-
ing months, Canadians and Belgians will have fought,
will fight, together, upon the same battlefields, in the
same sacred cause; and when this war is over, for
generations to come, thousands of Canadian patriots,
Canadian citizens will repair to Belgium, to the marshes
and morasses of Flanders, to visit the sacred spots where
Canadian heroes died in the cause of civilization. "We
are too much inclined to think of the sufferings of Bel-
gium in terms of the past: we ought to think of those
sufferings in terms of the future. Belgium will be kept
by Germany almost until the end of the war; for, once
Belgium is evacuated, the war will be over. But that
will be a tremendous task; and in the process of driving
out the Germans, every city of Belgium that still stands,
from Antwerp to Brussels and from Brussels to Namur
and Liege, will have to be destroyed. And I am not sure
that even when the war is over, when victory crowns
our armies all over Europe I am not sure if, even then,
the sufferings of Belgium will be over.
"For you will have to keep in mind the peculiar posi-
tion of Belgium. Before this war Germany was the
hinterland of Belgium. Belgium economically was in
dependence upon Germany. Antwerp had almost be-
come a German town. The prosperity of Belgium is
literally bound up with the commercial prosperity of
Germany; and the economic tragedy of the near future
consists in this: That every blow aimed at the prosperity
58 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
of Germany will be indirectly a blow aimed at the com-
me; cial prosperity and expansion of Belgium. And yet
we are quite prepared to suffer whatever may happen,
whatever must happen, in order to shake off our close
economic dependency upon Germany. We are deter-
mined in Belgium to keep out the German. It is our
one political aim to-day to be able to gain prosperity
for our ruined nation with the help mainly of Great
Britain and the British Empire.
"The mystery of this war consists precisely in this
that a great crime has been committed by a great na-
tion, possessed of noble virtues, and surrounded by the
blessings of its great achievements. How shall we ex-
plain this mystery? Gentlemen, I have a very simple
explanation. I am going to try to submit it to you. In
this war we are up against a nation which is politically
insane. There are in the history of nations those col-
lective manias which, century after century, cause the
greatest historic catastrophes. Sometimes these col-
lective manias take the form of treaty rights, race
rights. Sometimes they result in religious wars, some-
times in civil wars. Again and again we find that the
accumulated effect of these collective manias sweeps
"Now, let us briefly consider what this progressive
paranoia of the German people consists of. What are
the characteristic phases which mark an attack of luna-
cy in an individual case? It generally starts with that
anti-social vice, pride, inflated into megalomania. Any-
body who has entered a lunatic asylum knows that the
lunatic first believes he is the occupant of some exalted
position, that he is an emperor, a king, or a president.
He feels the need of impressing the people around him
that he is an exalted personage; and when he finds that
the people around him refuse to accept this presentation
of himself, the megalomaniac becomes inevitably pos-
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
sessed of the delirium of persecution and imagines that
there is a conspiracy of the community against him.
The madman will then become the victim of the delirium
of violence, homicidal mania; and then, after he has
vented his rage against the people who have persecuted
him, who have refused to recognize his supreme great-
ness, the madman suffers from a reaction of depression
and melancholia; and when that fourth stage in the
paranoiac goes far enough, then comes the culminating
phase of suicidal mania.
"Now, we will notice that every detail of these pro-
gressive stages of paranoia, of individual insanity, af-
fects the German nation. The German madness started
with a vast national imperial megalomania. 'We are the
salt of the earth.' they said; 'we are the chosen people;
we are the supreme race. The French are corrupt; the
British effete; the Russians servile. We alone are the
supreme men; and Prussia alone is the super-state'.
"Of course, the rest of the world has not accepted
the Germans at their own valuation. They have re-
fused to believe that the Germans were the supreme
race. And then the Germans, with that characteristic
of the insane man, have assumed that a systematic per-
secution of the German nation was afoot, a conspiracy
to keep the German people from taking their rightful
place in the sun, to withhold from them due recognition.
So the Germans, after a time, having suffered for a
generation from the delirium of greatness, started to
suffer from the delirium of persecution; and when that
delirium of persecution had obsessed them long enough,
having during that period organized themselves into a
military state, they became determined to avenge them-
selves against their Anglo-Saxon persecutors; and then,
after the megalomania and the mania of persecution,
came the homicidal mania. The whole nation is pos-
70 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
sessed with the homicidal mania, and is prepared to
fight the whole world, if necessary.
"As I said to you, however, in the evolution of in-
sanity after action always comes reaction, and after
the delirium of violence there come depressions and
melancholia, and after melancholia there comes the
suicidal mania. I would not like to attempt to prophesy
what is going to happen within the next few months.
When you have to deal with a madman, you never can
foretell exactly what is going to take place; but I do
think, in this case, we can foretell pretty safely that
after this orgy of murder, after this terrific outburst of
homicidal mania, there will come the inevitable reaction
depression, culminating in political suicide. I feel
pretty certain that one of the factors in ending this war
certainly will be a most satisfactory one that the Ger-
man people, after having turned their impotent rage
against the whole civilized world, will turn that rage
against themselves, and this war of nations will end in
a German revolution. At present I am afraid there are
not many indications of any reaction, of any abatement
in the homicidal mania of the Teutonic hordes; and I
am afraid the process is not going to be quite as speedy
as we could wish. As I said, we still have a great task
"The Belgian people are quite aware of all that is
still to come. The Belgian people know that until the
end of the war Belgium will remain not merely under
the heel of the conqueror, but in the grip of a reign
of terror, in the grip of famine; and it seems to me the
clear duty of the other nations to try and assist Belgium
in her plight. She will have to be assisted until the
end. Remember that to-day we have a king of whom
we are very proud, that king to-day is a king without a
temporal kingdom. There is no government in Belgium
except the administration of the tyrant. The Belgians
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 71
are an orphaned nation. Help must come from the out-
side food for the starving people, tending of the wound-
ed, ambulances for the work of mercy; for these, Bel-
gium must appeal to the charity of outside nations.
Great Britain, and the whole of the British Empire, in
fact, have nobly undertaken to discharge that voluntary
duty. You will not take it amiss if I beg to remind you
that until the end that sacred duty will have to be kept
in mind. Unless you come to their assistance, there is
nobody else to help the suffering Belgian people."
72 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
BRITANNIC AND GERMANIC IDEALS OF EMPIRE
30th June, 1915
N. W. Rowell, K.C., M.P.P., Leader of the Opposition
Mr. Rowell remarked on rising to address the mem-
bers of the Club, "As the years pass, we will hear less
and less talk of the east and west of Canada. There will
be one Canada, so referred to; and not only will the
provinces of our Dominion be drawn closer together,
but all parts of the Empire will be knit close by our
sympathies and sacrifices.
"Germany, industrially and politically, has for years
been virtually organized on a war basis. It only required
the word of the war lord to set the whole nation ablaze
as one man. That gave Germany a tremendous advant-
age in the intial stages of the conflict. Germany, under
normal conditions had an iron and steel production and
plant equal to that of Prance and Great Britain com-
bined. Then, by her conquest of Belgium, she obtained
control of the industrial centres of Belgium and North-
ern Prance, where 75 per cent of the iron and steel
plants of those countries are located. When you con-
sider her original organization and capacity, and then
consider how greatly this was increased by her occupa-
tion of the districts I have mentioned, you can perhaps
form some idea of the vastness of Germany's equip-
"Now, our Empire, Great Britain, was organized on
a peace basis. In order that she might measure up to
the exigencies of the conflict in which she has engaged,
it was necessary to reorganize her social, her industrial,
her military life, practically from the ground up. And
so, by Lloyd-George, Great Britain is being reorganized
Newton Wesley Rowell, K.C.
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
industrially, even as Lord Kitchener is reorganizing her
from a military standpoint; so that she may be able,
under the great demand for war material and supplies,
to secure the maximum output in the minimum of time.
"Now, what is our duty in regard to Canada? If
ever there was a time when Canada needed a strong
and constructive leadership, it is to-day. The people
of Canada will cordially support the government in tak-
ing the most vigorous and comprehensive action to en-
able us to do our full share. When in Great Britain they
are calling men out of the trenches to man their fac-
tories; when women are leaving their homes and boys
their schools, to produce munitions, surely the privilege
and responsibility rests with us to see that idle or only
partially busy factories and idle workmen are permitted
to help save the Empire in her hour of need. Our whole
Empire should be so organized that we are all working
together as one to forward the great object in view the
preservation of the liberty of the people.
"For us, this conflict largely resolves itself into a
conflict between Great Britain and Germany. Discuss-
ing it from that standpoint, I do not underestimate the
great service in the cause of the Allies rendered by
Belgium, France, Russia, Servia and Italy. I said that
Germany was organized on a war basis. Why? Because
military despotism is the dominant note in the political
life of Germany. Militarism stands for domination by
the power of the sword, and its watchword is 'Might
is the supreme right.' On the other hand, democracy,
represented by Great Britain, has for its ideals human
liberty, free government, and equal justice to all. Its
watchword is 'Right is greater than might.' Thus, we
are to-day engaged in a life-and-death struggle with
military despotism, as represented by Germany.
"For more than a century in Germany itself, these
two forces, militarism and democracy, have been
74 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
struggling for the mastery. In 1848 a great wave of
democracy swept over Germany, and so terrified the
German rulers that they granted in that year constitu-
tions to the respective states; and from 1848 to 1862,
they had a measure of parliamentary government. But
then came Bismarck's chancellorship and absolutism
again prevailed. If democracy had triumphed in 1862,
I believe we would have been saved this world war.
From 1862 down to the present date, absolutism, based
on Prussian militarism, has been steadily increasing its
power and influence, not only in Prussia, but throughout
the other states that now make up united Germany. To-
day Prussian militarism is dominant and resistless
within the whole German empire, and is seeking to make
itself dominant and resistless throughout the world.
"Since 1862, the policy pursued by the governments
of Prussia and Germany in combating the democratic
movement has passed through two phases. The first
was the policy of repression followed by Bismarck, who
punished and proscribed the leaders of the democratic
movement, and the second the policy to undermine the
strength of the social democratic movement by an ag-
gressive national policy. Prince von Buelow said that
it was essential to the life of the monarchy and the
state that the Social Democratic movement be defeated.
In pursuance of this policy, the German government
sought to undermine the power of the democratic move-
ment by educating the German people through the vari-
ous institutions to accept the government's ideals,
which could be summed in saying that 'world empire is
the rightful destiny of the German people.' The success
of that policy we find expressed in the present war.
"Now, what has been our own history? From that
day at Runnymede when the barons wrung the signature
to Magna Charta from the unwilling pen of King John,
British history has been the history of the gradual
ADDRESSES OP THE YEAR 75
triumph of the rights and liberties of its people. Crom-
well and his Ironsides disposed forever of the question
of the divine right of kings of England. The democratic
movement has grown with the growth of the British
Empire; so that to-day, in every British dependency
throughout the world, you will find the citizens ready to
fight for the preservation of their freedom and the main-
tenance of free British institutions, as long as they have
a son left to fight or a dollar to spend.
"We have learned not only how to govern ourselves,
but how to apply the principles of freedom to our world-
wide empire. In Germany the military power is
supreme; in Britain the civil power is supreme. The
pathway to liberty for the German people, the only
pathway to liberty for the German people, lies in the
defeat and overthrow of the present Germany, governed
by a military democracy. And for us, the only way we
can save the liberty we now enjoy, is by seeing to it that
the overthrow is complete. The whole history of this
war, from the violation of Belgium's neutrality to the
sinking of the Lusitania, is the history of what an un-
checked military autocracy means to the people or
peoples who may be subjected to it. Similar scenes
would be enacted in Canada, if the Germans should ever
be in a position to attack and over-run the Dominion
The supremacy of the civil power is one of the cardinal
principles of government in Great Britain.
"It is said there are two tests of democracy first,
its capacity for management of its national power and
resources (we might have done better than we have in
this respect) ; and second, its capacity for sacrifice in
hours of national emergency. While we appreciate what
Canada has already done, it is well for us to bear in mind
how small relatively is the sacrifice we have made, com-
pared with that made by the people of the Mother
Country. According to the best information one can
76 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
secure, Great Britain has under arms to-day, either at
the front or in training, three millions of men. If we
in Canada had the same number in proportion to our
population, we would have 500,000. I, for one I have
said it ever since the war opened, and I repeat it again
to-day cannot see why we in Canada in proportion to
our numbers should not give just as many men as the
Mother Country. I am constrained to think although
I regret to be compelled to think it that, great as is
the sacrifice that has already been made, we are only at
the commencement. We must put into this fight every
ounce of our strength, in order to make sure of victory.
"It is fitting that at this Canadian Club one should
pay a tribute to the valiant men from Canada who have
died that the Empire might live. They died for us, and
for each of us, and for every lover of human liberty the
world over. They are worthy of Canada; all nations
join in paying that tribute to their memory. A much
more searching question for you and me is this, 'Are we
worthy of them?' Does their death, which we mourn,
and the sympathy which we extend to the ones who are
bereft, inspire us with a new and stronger resolve and
with a nobler faith and passion, that by all the power
and strength that in us lie, we will take up the task they
have laid down, having given their all for its accom-
plishment, and carry it through to a successful con-
"I venture to hope that one of the early acts of the
new national administration at Westminster will be to
invite the premiers or other representatives of the
governments of all the dominions to meet in London
for a conference on this vital issue. I am sure every
portion of the empire would cheerfully and gladly re-
spond to the united appeal of the free nations of the
empire. And what a splendid illustration and demon-
stration it would be at this hour of the solidarity as well
ADDRESSES OP THE YEAR 77
as the flexibility of our free institutions, and the loyalty
which springs from liberty. What a demonstration it
would be of the determination of the free democracies
of the empire to combine in the performance of the Em-
pire's task and to maintain for democracy and free
government their right to a place on the earth.
"Just as our brave men have mingled their blood on
the soil of Belgium that we may maintain our freedom,
so men of all classes and races and creeds in this country
will unite in one holy and common resolve, and say To
the last man and the last dollar, Canada is in this fight
to see it through/ Democracy is now at its testing point.
If it fails, autocracy triumphs. But it will not fail. From
all parts of the Empire, from every corner of it, will go
forth the solemn pledge that the British nation will not
cease this struggle while she has a man left alive or a
penny to spend."
Remarks by Major (now Lt.-Colonel J. Kirkcaldy)
Following the address of Mr. Rowell, Major Kirk-
caldy of Brandon, introduced by Lt.-Col. J. B. Mitchell,
expressed his appreciation of the address just given. He
stated that he had been privileged to be associ-
ated with the Canadians who had gone to the front in
defence of the Empire. "I may say that a great deal was
expected of the Canadians, and they have amply fulfilled
all expectations. They even surpassed themselves. It
has been conceded that there are not any better fighters
in the Empire to-day than those comprising the Cana-
dian contingents. I am certain from what I have seen
that the second contingent will at least equal the first,
when it gets abroad.
"I thank you for the encouragement you have given
me. I am pleased to be back, and will be greatly honored
78 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
in being given charge of a newly-organized regiment, to
drill it in such tactics as are practised at the front; and
will be pleased to take it back to the field of battle, to
assist our Empire in this war and add some new pages
to the history of Canada, telling of the way the Canadian
contingents conducted themselves in the world's great-
Colonel J. A. Currie, M.P.
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
EXPERIENCES WITH THE CANADIANS IN
3rd September, 1915
Colonel J. A. Currie, M.P., Commandant of the 48th
Highland Battalion of the Canadian
In remarking upon the fact that the Minister of
Militia had cabled him to come to Canada to help in re-
cruiting, Colonel Currie stated that he thought there was
no better way to start work to this end than to tell some-
thing of how Canadians had behaved in Flanders; not
only the native-born Canadians, those sons of the hardy
pioneers who have made our Dominion, but also those
from other countries who have come to Canada and have
become fully qualified Canadians and have gone forth
with their Canadian fellow-citizens to fight the Empire's
"The men you have sent have done you great credit,
because those regiments have fought alongside of other
regiments in the greatest battle English soldiers ever
fought, and have behaved themselves most nobly, and
sustained the honor of their country and city.
"After we had taken our training in England, we
were taken to France and sent up to the front, and im-
mediately put in the trenches. The first thing that hap-
pened was that the Canadians were put in the same
trenches with regiments whose names are historic. All
were anxious to see how our men would behave. Their
behavior, gentlemen, was beyond question. Never a
finer lot of men went abroad. You know many of them,
and I know them all well. Some of them will never
come back; but all, the living and the dead, have done
their part; and the fame of the Canadian soldier has set
its impress upon the imagination of the people of
THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
After an interesting description of trench life,
Colonel Currie described the great contest of 22nd April,
"The Belgians held the northern part of the line,
about 25 miles, between Dixmude and Bixschoote. The
western face of the salient at Ypres was held by the
French, the southern by the English; and arrangements
were made whereby the French troops were to be re-
placed by British troops, with Canadian troops in the
eastern angle of the salient. Well, when we heard the
German shells exploding around us, we thought we were
in a pretty tight corner. Those French trenches were
very low, and in the shape of half-moons. Next us were
the French troops, then the Belgians. The Germans
gassed the French troops, consisting of Turcos. A great
many of them died in their trenches, and the rest re-
treated. It was in the early evening, about six o'clock.
The Germans, some 250,000 of them, were coming with
a thousand guns; and it looked as if we were going to
suffer the greatest disaster that ever befell the British
arms. It was then, gentlemen, that the Canadians
turned the day, withstood that German tide. Alongside
of my battalion on the Polecapelle Road was the 90th
Regiment of Winnipeg. It is unnecessary for me to say
just now how they fought. Steps were taken to throw
a reserve battalion in on the north, where the Germans
had broken through. The 16th and 10th went at them,
and pressed them back about a mile. There were about
25 Germans to every Canadian; but it was in the dusk
of the evening, and the way those Canadians went at
them, the Germans thought there were about three
million. It is unnecessary for me to add that these brave
regiments suffered terrible losses; but they did what
they set out to do; they drove the Germans back and
held that line. The 1st Canadian Brigade came on later
in the evening, as soon as the roads were cleared.
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
"In history, as you perhaps know, it is considered
a terrible thing in war for a regiment to be decimated,
that is, to lose 10 per cent, of its strength; but every one
of these Canadian regiments lost over 50 per cent of
their men and still held their ground. One of my com-
panies was all but wiped out; only about fifteen men
have turned up out of that whole company. Captain
McGregor died the death of a hero, along with other
famous officers Lieut. Taylor, one of the finest oars-
men in the province of Ontario, and Lieut. Arthur Muir
of Winnipeg; two of the finest athletes in the whole divi-
''You will wonder why the Canadians stood there,
holding their ground in the face of such awful odds. The
reason they did not retire was this: In the first place
the order was: 'You must hold your trenches. If the
enemy take your trenches, you must counter-attack and
drive them back with your bayonets.' At least seven
times they were driven back with the bayonet. The re-
cord of your 90th is similar; but they finally over-
whelmed the front trench, about five o'clock in the even-
ing. The order came down about that time that we were
to retire. Only seventy men, another officer and myself,
came out of that hell alive. The order went on down to
the 90th. I understand it was about half an hour later
before they were relieved.
"It is not generally understood thoroughly how well
the Canadians did in that terrible battle. Had they given
way, the result would have been the most terrible disas-
ter to British arms for thousands of years. That was
one of the greatest battles in the history of the Empire.
The number of men engaged was close upon three-
quarters of a million; the casualties more than at the
historic battles of Gettysburg or Sedan ; so the fact that
the Canadians held the post of honor in a battle of that
kind makes them well worthy of all praise. The heroism
g2 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
of all was remarkable. The wounded never murmured.
They made light of even the most serious hurts. They
merely said: 'It is all right; I am glad we have held
them off.' Perhaps you think I am praising the Cana-
dians, to the disadvantage of their fellow-fighters; so I
will add that the English and French fought nobly.
There was no question of the gallantry of any of the
"And what of the future? Great Britain has taken
the measure, the Allies have taken the measure, of their
adversary. But we will need men and more men, guns
and more guns. The aeroplane, too, has played a great
and important part in this war. We were a little short of
aeroplanes at St. Julien and we felt the need of them.
The British army has lived up to its traditions ; and the
time will come when the great field army in France will
go against the Germans and drive them out of Flanders.
But we want, I repeat, more men.
"It is the duty of those of you who remain at home
to employ your business ability in active organization
work, and see that every assistance is given to the
men see that they are well fed, well-clad, well-supplied.
Even if you are not in the ranks, you can assist. The
German has one grudge against us that grudge seems
to be that for five centuries England has dominated the
world. It is world power or nothing with the Germans.
But remember that the British race, though dominating
the world, has never tyrannized over the weak and the
helpless. It is worthy to be the dominating race and has
shown it. For that reason, do everything you can to
assist us in this war."
Lt.-Col. Arthur W. Morley
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
SOME INCIDENTS OF THE SECOND BRIGADE OF
THE CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
8th October, 1915
Lt.-Colonel Arthur W. Morley, 90th Winnipeg Rifles.
After an interesting description of mobilization and
camp training Lt.-Col. Morley (then Major) told how the
Little Black Devils embarked for France early in Febru-
ary . "I recall, a few days after landing, our inspection
by General French. It used to be in the old days, when
British Officers came to Canada, they adopted a certain
attitude toward Canadian soldiers, just because they
were Canadians. But General French, when we arrived
in France, inspected us in a very business-like manner.
'You represent yourselves as what you appear, and I
leave it to you,' seemed to be his attitude; and we were
perfectly satisfied with it. In a short time the Canadians
were given parts of the British line on their own re-
sponsibility. At first, although we gained considerable
experience, there was no particular opportunity to dis-
tinguish ourselves. It is true that while we were there,
the great battle of Neuve Chapelle took place; but we
were engaged in that battle only in a technical sense,
happening to be within the zone of operations. But in
these trenches we learned trench routine how to make
and improve trenches, how to look after them under
"After some months of this, in the winter time,
when it is very disagreeable moving about in what they
call 'mud-mufflers,' we were sent into the line forming
part of the salient at Ypres; and shortly afterwards,
that great attack by the Germans took place, of which
you have heard a surprise attack, preceded by the most
inhuman use of gas. I am not going to describe that
Babel in any detail, but will only mention one or two
incidents. The gas was first used on the French, who
were on the left of the Canadians and the Turcos gave
way. The third Canadian Brigade were next ; and in the
g4 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
next two days' fighting, the 3rd Canadian Brigade had
to fall back. The 2nd Brigade was next. Thus, the 2nd
were compelled to hold the enormous gap formed where
the Algerians or Turcos had fallen back and where the
3rd Canadian Brigade had left their trenches. That gap
had to be stopped in some way; for an immense army of
Germans were attempting to pour through in their
great thrust towards Calais; endeavoring also to break
up more of the line. Apparently there were not reserves
sufficient. The 2nd Brigade was filled out with the 8th
and the 5th Battalions. The 7th and 10th were sent to
assist the 3rd. The Germans had brought up an im-
mense army, estimated at half a million men. The 10th
Battalion of the 2nd Brigade was brought up and ordered
to attack them. The Germans came up by night; and
the attack which followed was one of the most notable
things that has occurred during the war.
"That 10th Battalion were Winnipeg men the
100th and 106th Regiments, supported by the 16th Bat-
talion of the 3rd Brigade. They attacked the Germans,
who had, besides immensely superior forces, a great
number of machine guns. They drove those Germans out
of that wedge they had made. They stopped the
German advance; and not only stopped that advance
temporarily, but gained time for the British troops not
immediately in reserve to be brought up to support the
attack. It was one of the finest things that have been
done by the Canadian Expeditionary Force.
"I said that in the trenches were the 8th and the
5th Battalions of the 2nd Brigade. In each of these,
they had their local supports, consisting of one company
immediately behind, where they could be thrown up
with ease, some 600 or 800 yards to the rear. When the
supports were ordered up to support the left, it happened
that the officers of the two platoons were wounded and
the troops could not advance further. It was then that
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR gc
Hall, my sergeant-major, took hold of the remnants of
these two platoons, and took them up to the extreme left
trench. While making this advance, they suffered so
badly that less than half of them arrived at the trench.
One man in particular was very badly wounded within
some twenty or thirty yards of the extreme left trench,
and different men tried to help this man in. First, one
man who was already wounded went out to bring him
in. This man was again wounded, very severely. An-
other wounded man went out, and received a second
wound, a mortal one. A third man tried it. He too was
wounded. It seemed absolutely impossible that any man
could get across that little space and live. It was then
that Sergeant-Major Hall saw the men groaning there,
wounded and apparently beyond assistance. He slung
his rifle over his shoulder, and quite casually, yet quickly,
went towards the stricken men. He picked up one of
them and, though hundreds of bullets and shells stormed
about him, returned to the trench and was all but safe
when he received a bullet that killed instantly the man
he was carrying. You have heard of Sergeant-Major
Hall and how he was honored by the King. It was this
feat of which I have just been telling you that made him
the first Canadian of Winnipeg to win the Victoria Cross.
When I tell you that not one German reached the lines
of the 2nd Brigade, you can understand what our brave
boys did to the Germans who advanced. We were re-
lieved at that place on the morning of April 25th. A re-
lief is always made in the early morning, before daylight
when there is the least chance for the enemy to direct
their fire. One company, No. 4, commanded by Captain
Northwood, was unable to come out and had to remain.
During the following day, the troops who relieved us
were forced back ; but I want to tell you that No. 4 Com-
pany held out until they were completely surrounded.
One Winnipeg man you all knew him, in the Y.M.C.A.
Geo. Aldritt was a machine gun sergeant. He fired
86 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
his machine until the last moment, worked it until that
No. 4 company and himself were completely surrounded
and cut off from the main army. That is why you find
to-day some of your Winnipeg men are unfortunately
prisoners of war in Germany.
"You have seen the picture called "The Roll Call"?
Well, the re-formation of the 2nd Brigade at head-
quarters, was like that. Of that Brigade, which origin-
ally had more than four thousand men, less than one
thousand reassembled back at headquarters. By that
you can understand what it cost Winnipeg to hold its
line at the battle of Ypres.
"Soon afterwards we were sent to another part of
the line, near Festubert where a very severe shelling
took place. Capt. McMeans, commanding No. 2 Com-
pany of the 8th Brigade, was in command of a trench
which had been captured from the Germans. He was
being shelled most unmercifully; and when half of his
company were gone, McMeans said; 'Boys, if this thing
keeps up, we will not have more than a corporal's guard
to go out of here ; ' and with that, what were left of the
company marched out in good order. Shortly afterwards
he was killed in that trench. About the same time,
Lieuts. Scott and Passmore also fell. The 8th Battalion
there lost some of its most gallant officers, and Winni-
peg some of its finest young men.
"The trenches, too, have their lighter side. There
are no more cheerful people connected with this war
than the boys in the trenches. They make jokes about
everything, especially the German shells. The officers
are not excluded from their jokes. I recall one day in
the trenches, when the word was passed among some of
my own Tommies that some staff officers were coming
down the trenches.
" 'Staff officers in the trenches'! exclaimed one of
the boys, 'Peace must have been declared!"
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
HOW THE DEPENDENTS OF OUR SOLDIERS
ARE LOOKED AFTER
15th October, 1915
A. M. Nanton, Winnipeg, Charman Finance Committee,
Manitoba Patriotic Fund.
Immediately after the outbreak of the war in
August, 1914, a meeting was held in the Winnipeg In-
dustrial Bureau for the purpose of deciding what should
be done towards helping the dependents of the soldiers
going to the front. The result of that meeting, as Mr.
Nanton reminded his hearers, was 'the formation of the
Winnipeg Patriotic Fund.
This Fund had at the beginning two purposes the
first the care of the wives, children, mothers and other
dependents of the soldiers who had joined the forces;
the second, the care of those in distress or want through
unemployment caused by the war. This Fund was after-
wards extended to become the Manitoba Patriotic Fund,
embracing not only the City of Winnipeg, but the whole
province. The Winnipeg organization was the first of
the kind formed in the Dominion. Some time later a
national organization was formed, with headquarters at
Ottawa. The Manitoba body affiliated with that or-
ganization, but retained its own board of management
and its moneys.
Mr. Nanton stated that the total sum received for
all purposes was approximately $830,000. Of this
$115,000 was spent in relief work. Included in that sum
was some $10,000, used for a wood camp which was the
means of giving employment to a number of men out of
work during the winter. That sum was carefully ex-
pended, with the result that the value of the wood ob-
tained totalled more than its cost. Relief in clothing,
fuel, etc., was given to 2,430 families. (These were
families not connected with the soldiers merely un-
fortunate on account of the stress of the times.) Practic-
ally all the relief in the way of money to soldiers' de-
88 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
pendents passed through the hands of lady visitors, over
one hundred in number.
The general scale of monthly assistance determined
on was: To a wife, without children, $10; wife with
children, $10 and $5 extra for each of the first two
children; allowances for additional children slightly re-
duced. The maximum allowance from the Fund to any
family was put at $40 per month. Widows supported
by their sons also receive assistance. In cases of illness,
special consideration is given to the case, but in no in-
stance is the $40 maximum exceeded. The following is
an example of what a private's wife with two children
would have to live on: Separation allowance from the
government, $20; part of husband's pay, $15; from
Patriotic Fund $20; total per month, $55. In cases
where the wife is receiving the salary of her husband
from those employers who are paying their employees'
salaries while they are away at the war, she gets nothing
while the husband's pay is being drawn. The allowances
from the Patriotic Fund are kept up until wounded or
discharged men return to Canada, or pensions are ar-
ranged. After this, it is thought that the Returned
Soldiers' Fund should take care of the soldier and his
"This organization has been a stimulus to recruit-
ing," Mr. Nanton pointed out. "I am not exaggerating
when I say that thousands of men have called at the of-
fices of the Fund before enlisting, with the purpose of
ascertaining what would be done for their dependents
if they went to the front. The work done has almost
been too great to go into details about it; but I would
like to tell you one or two things. In the first place,
there is not one cent of cost in connection with the ex-
penditure in the way of unemployment relief an ex-
penditure amounting to $115,000. (This phase of the
work is not being continued this winter). It was all
done for nothing; the men and officials gave their time
gratuitously. Then, in connection with the assistance
given to the soldiers' dependents, the total expense dur-
ing the past year has not been more than $6,400. Of
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 39
this, some $3,500 was paid out in salaries, and the bal-
ance disbursed in the way of printing, advertising, post-
age, and things of that kind. You may ask Kow has
this been done? Well, it could only have been done
through the assistance given the Fund by the Industrial
Bureau. We were given free offices; we were allowed
the use of the general organization of the Bureau; and
we had with us, to guide our affairs, the able Secretary
of the Bureau, C. P. Roland.
"I have not got before me figures showing the exact
sums raised for patriotic purposes in the provinces out-
side of Manitoba; but I can tell you what we have raised
here. We have raised aproximately $1.43 per person in
the province, and, I understand, in no other province in
the Dominion of Canada has the amount as yet come up
to $1.00 per head. This comparison may seem good.
Some may argue that we should stop and let some of the
others come forward; but I entirely disagree with that.
If the provinces outside of us are not doing so much as
we are, we should go to their assistance and show them
that we can not only raise money to take care of our
own men that have gone to the front, but that we are
able and willing to help them take care of theirs. After
this war is over, there will be two kinds of men those
who did their bit and those who did not. It seems to
me that the Empire will have very little to do with those
who did not."
90 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
THE WEST RE-VISITED
26th October, 1915
The Marquis of Aberdeen and Temaire.
Governor General of Canada 1893-1898.
His Lordship remarked in rising that the experi-
ences of the morning had reminded him of the title of
a once well-known book "Looking Backward."
"You may remember that the author of that book
describes himself as having been in a deep slumber for a
period of many years, so that when he awoke he found
himself in entirely new surroundings, in the midst of
a sort of Utopia Well, I thought of that during my brief
inspection of some of the principal streets and buildings
of the City of Winnipeg as it is to-day. In the case of
the Utopia in which the author of the book I have men-
tioned found himself, there were some extraordinary
changes; but in the case of Winnipeg, after all, it is the
same city in regard to its spirit of enterprise and energy
and determination. I have heard a great deal of this
city; but seeing is believing; and I have now had an op-
portunity of seeing something of the wonderful physical
improvements, the noble buildings, which grace your
streets. One institution seems to vie with another in
establishing the outward and visible manifestation of
the enterprise and worth of the city and of the Domin-
ion. No visitor can fail to be impressed by these evid-
ences of progress. As I said before, it is the spirit which
animates a community which is the essential thing; and
I cannot help recalling what your distinguished former
governor-general, Lord Dufferin, said about Winnipeg
that it was the 'bull's-eye of Canada.'
"I wish particularly to say that Britain is proud
of the way in which this great Dominion has come for-
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR
ward in the present supreme emergency. I would like
to go further and say that the Canadian contingents
have shown in a noble way what manner of men they
were and are. Even in the face of great inequalities
they have, not only by their distinguished conduct on
the battlefield, shown their mettle, but also by the man-
ner in which they went through their preliminary phase
of camp life. Through entirely unavoidable complica-
tions they were compelled to don their uniforms and go
into camp before arrangements were fully completed;
and to go through this experience without a word of
complaint implies a hardihood which carries out in a
thoroughly manly sense the spirit of the apostolic ex-
hortation: 'Do thou, my son, endure hardships as a
"Theirs was no 'five o'clock in the morning' courage.
In the face of terrific emergencies one can imagine
what it must have been to those brought up wholly un-
acquainted with the horrors of war to face the nervous
stress of trench and cannonade they proved them-
selves men and true sons of the Empire. The people of
Canada have been nobly represented in those who have
gone forth to fight the battles, not only of the British
Empire, but in the truest sense of this great Dominion.
We have all got our friends and dear ones there. I feel
free to look you in the face, gentlemen, for I have a son
at the front with the Canadian Scottish. I am sure that
Winnipeg has done her part in a most distinguished and
noble manner in regard to contribution, both of men and
in help of other kinds, to the great cause of patriotism
"Let me congratulate you on the existence of this
Club, which I understand is one of a group which exists
for co-operation and the interchange of ideas, and forms
a sort of chain across the Dominion. My last word to
you will be in connection with that building up of an ex-
92 THE CANADIAN CLTJB OF WINNIPEG
cellent civic community which is going on here. One
cannot think without a slight feeling of envy of the
great scope for development that you have here. We
know that town-planning is now very much to the fore,
and is an important and scientific aspect of the move-
ment tending to the welfare of the community. The
city of the future will be planned so as to make use of
the natural advantages of the site upon which it is
founded. I hope the future expansion of your province
and city will go on side by side with the intellectual de-
velopment of the community as a whole. I offer again
my hearty good wishes for the future success of the
ADDRESSES OF THE YEAR 93
AUSTRALIA'S METHOD OF MILITARY TRAINING
4th November, 1915
Lieutenant J. J. Simons.
Speaking on behalf of the Australian Cadets who
were making a world-tour under his charge, Lieutenant
Simons affirmed that they felt while moving across the
Canadian section of the North American continent, as
though they were receiving a new inspiration, a broader
knowledge, and above all that they were enhancing their
pride in the British Empire ,
"While fractional difference exists, we know that
on broader and bigger principles we in Australia and
you in Canada stand together for the greater things in
the life of the Empire. We think with one brain, we feel
with one heart, and we respond to the same enthu-
"We Australians are very proud of our Australian
continent. How many people in the British Empire
realize the extensiveness and the possibilities of that
great territory in the southern seas! sometimes mis-
named an island, but actually larger than the whole of
the United States. It has been the dream of that
wonderful far-off continent to become the home of a
great nation ; and it was this dream which inspired one
of our poets to sing of 'Australia, Empress of the
Southern Seas.' We represent a broad expanse of ter-
ritory, which has been entrusted to people of one tongue,
one race, and one ideal. But while we feel an unabating
pride in belonging to the great Australian nation, we
have a pride that overtowers that even, and that is the
fact that our continent is, and is to be, a part of the great
British Empire. Our vision of the future leads us to be-
lieve that, great as have been the achievements of the
British race during the past thousand years, great as
94 THE CANADIAN CLUB OF WINNIPEG
has been the development of the Empire during the 19th
century, it is all only a forerunner of the greater part
which the British Empire is to play in the destinies of
"Of course you are all interested to know how
Australia is attempting to fulfil the duty of her people
as guardians of that part of the British Empire. Every
energy, every resource, every suggestion of prac-
tical value made by our citizens, have entered into
the work of making our continent secure against
attack. We realize that we are the keepers of
one of the greatest provinces of the great Imper-
ial domain, and we know it is a heritage worth
having, and worth keeping; and if worth enjoying,
worth defending. How to defend it was our problem.
"We have evolved a system which is not conscrip-
tion, but yet exacts compulsory service from every male
who lives in Australia. Of course we have had critics
who prophesied failure, who said that the scheme of
practically compelling army service was un-British. But
when you come to think of all the things the Britisher
does by compulsion, you become amazed that we should
submit to them at all. He gets educated by compulsion,
to fight the battle of life in commerce and trade. Why
should he not be compelled to prepare to take part in
the great battle for the existence of the Empire?
"Every boy between 12 and 26 years is a member
of the Australian citizen army in some capacity or
other. Now, even assuming that we do not have any
great increase in population during the next four or five
years, our system is going to give Australia within that
time 600,000 armed and trained men fully equipped,
properly trained, ready to spring to arms at a moment's
notice! We are the only Britsh community that has
made the experiment, and it has succeeded beyond our
ADL>KESSES OF THE YEAR
"Training and discipline stiffen the national fibre.
With your seven or eight million people, allowing a
percentage of able-bodied men proportionately similar
to ours, the same system would give the Dominion of
Canada nine hundred thousand men. And this military
training does not interfere with the advancement of
your men as citizens in fact a trained man is a citizen
improved. Now, if Canada and Australia had both had
this system in force, that would have given to the Em-
pire 1,500,000 men. Apply the same system to Great
Britain, to South Africa, and to all the British posses-
sions; and it is a very simple process of arithmetic to
arrive at the total number of soldiers that would be thus
made available throughout the Empire. Training is
just as necessary as courage.
"Now, consider what the Empire, organized in a
naval sense, has been able to accomplish. It has eclipsed
even the glories of Trafalgar by wiping from the seas
every German battleship and merchantman. Suppose
that the armies of the British Empire had been or-
ganized as well what would have been the result? It
would have been this; to those tons of floating German
junk would have been added millions of rifles and tons
of big guns, rendered useless by sheer force of military
In conclusion Lieutenant Simons spoke of the plea-
sure that was being experienced during the party's trip
across the Dominion and of the pride felt when they
had read and heard of the deeds of Canadians in
Flanders. Commenting upon the fact that the fibre of
British citizenship is such throughout the Empire that
none can lay a disturbing finger on any part without
vibrations of sympathy running to the uttermost bounds,
the Lieutenant found in this the real significance of the
phrase: "Let us live for all time as a united British